Depression is a highly prevalent disorder that is associated with disability. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depression and hyperlipidemia and whether the onset of depression is associated with administering statins to patients with hyperlipidemia. The data analyzed in this study were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified newly diagnosed hyperlipidemia in 26,852 patients without a history of depression as the exposure group in the period of 2000-2002, and a comparison group comprised 107,408 patients. The differences between the exposure group and the comparison group were examined using a chi-square test to calculate categorical variables. The hazard ratio and the 95% confidence interval for depression were used in the logistic regression. The hyperlipidemia patients demonstrated a high risk for depression and comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes and sleep disorder, which indicated synergistic effects related to a high risk of depression in hyperlipidemia patients. Hyperlipidemia patients who had received statins exhibited a lower risk of depression than did those who had not received statins. Our results suggested that hyperlipidemia increases the risk of depression and that using statins is associated with a decreased risk of depression in patients with hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.