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      An annotated checklist of Coccinellidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) with eight new records from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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          Abstract

          The members of Coccinellidae are among the most important biological control agents being used throughout the world. The objective of this study was to provide the current scenario of this family in Saudi Arabia. Collection surveys of ladybird individuals were conducted throughout Saudi Arabia. A total of 5400 specimens of Coccinellidae were collected belonging to 51 species in 19 genera and seven tribes: Sticholotidini (2 genera / 10 species), Coccidulini (1/3), Scymnini (4/24), Diomini (1/1), Hyperaspidini (1/3), Chilocorini (3/8), Noviini (1/3), Coccinellini (8/11), Epilachnini (2/2). One genus, Clitostethus , and eight species and subspecies, Cheilomenes lunata lunata (Fabricius, 1775), Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi, 1794), Nephus ornatulus Korschefsky, 1931, N. nigricans (Weise, 1879), Pharoscymnus fleischeri (Weise, 1883), Novius yemenensis Raimundo & Fürsch, 2006, Scymnus ( Scymnus) scapuliferus Mulsant, 1850, and Stethorus endrodyi Fürsch, 1970, are reported as new records to Saudi Arabia. Two endemic species, Scymnus agrumi and S. arabicus , were recorded. This study also describes the geographical distribution for each species and the diagnostic characters for new records.

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          Most cited references 46

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          The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

           R. Koch (2003)
          Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator.
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            A microfluorometric method for quantifying RNA and DNA in terrestrial insects

            Evidence is accumulating for a mechanistic linkage between body phosphorus content and growth and reproduction of individual organisms, due in part to variation in allocation of resources to ribosomal RNA. Testing this connection requires reliable methods of quantifying the nucleic acid content of individual organisms. Although methods for quantifying nucleic acids are available for a wide array of organisms, adaptation of such methods for study of insects has been neglected. Sensitive stains and high throughput fluorometric measurements are now available that substantially improve past methodologies. Here we present methods for the extraction and quantification of insect RNA and DNA based on the use of N-lauroylsarcosine and sonication for extraction, the nucleases RNase and DNase, and the use of microplate fluorescent assays to quantify nucleic acids as percent of body weight in insects. We illustrate the method using Drosophila and curculionid weevils.
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              Predaceous Coccinellidae in biological control.

              Coccinellids have been widely used in biological control for over a century, and the methods for using these predators have remained virtually unchanged. The causes for the relatively low rates of establishment of coccinellids in importation biological control have not been examined for most species. Augmentative releases of several coccinellid species are well documented and effective; however, ineffective species continue to be used because of ease of collection. For most agricultural systems, conservation techniques for coccinellids are lacking, even though they are abundant in these habitats. Evaluation techniques are available, but quantitative assessments of the efficacy of coccinellids have not been done for most species in most agricultural crops. Greater emphasis is needed on evaluation, predator specificity, understanding colonization of new environments, and assessment of community-level interactions to maximize the use of coccinellids in biological control.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                21 December 2020
                : 1006
                : 35-89
                Affiliations
                [1 ] King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia
                [2 ] Biology Department, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University Riyadh Saudi Arabia
                [3 ] Entomology Departments, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Amin Al Ansi ( amohammed1@ 123456ksu.edu.sa )

                Academic editor: J. Poorani

                Article
                59123
                10.3897/zookeys.1006.59123
                7769896
                33442319
                Amin Al Ansi, Areej A. Alkhalaf, Hassan Fadl, Iftekhar Rasool, Hathal Al Dhafer

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University
                Categories
                Checklist
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Coccinellidae
                Coleoptera
                Cucujoidea
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Polyphaga
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Arabian Peninsula
                Asia
                Middle East
                Saudi Arabia

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