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      Hypouricemic and Nephroprotective Effects of an Active Fraction from Polyrhachis Vicina Roger On Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia in Rats

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          Background/Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypouricemic and nephroprotective effects of an active fraction from Polyrhachis vicina Roger (AFPR) in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Methods: Hyperuricemia was induced by potassium oxonate in male rats. AFPR was orally administered to hyperuricemic rats for 12 consecutive weeks. Serum, liver and kidney samples were collected for effects and mechanism analysis. The levels of serum uric acid (SUA) were measured by the phosphotungstic acid method, xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in the hepatic and serum samples were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1β), interleukin-1 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA, the levels of serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined by colorimetric method. Protein expression of renal URAT1, GLUT9, and OAT1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results: AFPR significantly decreased the levels of SUA, serum and hepatic XOD, SCr, BUN, and MDA as well as increased SOD. In addition, AFPR treatment significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, we found the significant decrease in protein expression of URAT1 and GLUT9, and the significant increase in protein expression of OAT1 in the kidney in AFPR treated groups compared to the model groups of hyperuricemia. Conclusion: These findings suggest that AFPR has anti-hyperuricemic activity attributed to the inhibition of uric acid generation in the liver and probably to the enhancement of urate excretion in the kidney, and possess nephroprotective effect in hyperuricemic rats due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

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          Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels.

          Urate, a naturally occurring product of purine metabolism, is a scavenger of biological oxidants implicated in numerous disease processes, as demonstrated by its capacity of neuroprotection. It is present at higher levels in human blood (200 500 microM) than in other mammals, because humans have an effective renal urate reabsorption system, despite their evolutionary loss of hepatic uricase by mutational silencing. The molecular basis for urate handling in the human kidney remains unclear because of difficulties in understanding diverse urate transport systems and species differences. Here we identify the long-hypothesized urate transporter in the human kidney (URAT1, encoded by SLC22A12), a urate anion exchanger regulating blood urate levels and targeted by uricosuric and antiuricosuric agents (which affect excretion of uric acid). Moreover, we provide evidence that patients with idiopathic renal hypouricaemia (lack of blood uric acid) have defects in SLC22A12. Identification of URAT1 should provide insights into the nature of urate homeostasis, as well as lead to the development of better agents against hyperuricaemia, a disadvantage concomitant with human evolution.
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            SLC2A9 is a newly identified urate transporter influencing serum urate concentration, urate excretion and gout.

            Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans and great apes, which have lost hepatic uricase activity, leading to uniquely high serum uric acid concentrations (200-500 microM) compared with other mammals (3-120 microM). About 70% of daily urate disposal occurs via the kidneys, and in 5-25% of the human population, impaired renal excretion leads to hyperuricemia. About 10% of people with hyperuricemia develop gout, an inflammatory arthritis that results from deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joint. We have identified genetic variants within a transporter gene, SLC2A9, that explain 1.7-5.3% of the variance in serum uric acid concentrations, following a genome-wide association scan in a Croatian population sample. SLC2A9 variants were also associated with low fractional excretion of uric acid and/or gout in UK, Croatian and German population samples. SLC2A9 is a known fructose transporter, and we now show that it has strong uric acid transport activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
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              Association Between Serum Uric Acid and Development of Type 2 Diabetes

              OBJECTIVE To systematically evaluate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) level and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched Medline (31 March from 1966 to 2009) and Embase (31 March from 1980 to 2009) for observational cohort studies examining the association between SUA and the risk of type 2 diabetes by manual literature search. Relative risks (RRs) for each 1 mg/dl increase in SUA were pooled by using a random-effects model. The studies included were stratified into subgroups representing different study characteristics, and meta-regression analyses were performed to investigate the effect of these characteristics on the association between SUA level and type 2 diabetes risk. RESULTS The search yielded 11 cohort studies (42,834 participants) that reported 3,305 incident cases of type 2 diabetes during follow-up periods ranging from 2.0 to 13.5 years. The pooled RR of a 1 mg/dl increase in SUA was 1.17 (95% CI 1.09–1.25). Study results were consistently significant (i.e., >1) across characteristics of participants and study design. Publication bias was both visually and statistically suggested (P = 0.03 for Egger's test, 0.06). Adjustment for publication bias attenuated the pooled RR per mg/dl increase in SUA (RR 1.11 [95% CI 1.03–1.20]), but the association remained statistically significant (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS The current meta-analysis suggests that SUA level is positively associated with the development of type 2 diabetes regardless of various study characteristics. Further research should attempt to determine whether it is effective to utilize SUA level as a predictor of type 2 diabetes for its primary prevention.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                March 2018
                22 February 2018
                : 43
                : 1
                : 220-233
                aCollege of Health Science, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China
                bGuangxi Institute of Chinese Medicine & Pharmaceutical Science, Nanning, China
                cInstitute of Chinese Medicinal Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China
                dInstitute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                *Guining Wei and Naihong Chen, Department of Pharmacology, Guangxi Institute of Chinese Medicine & Pharmaceutical Science, 20-1 Dongge Rd,, Nanning; Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College,, 1 Xiannongtan Rd, Beijing (China);, Tel. +867715869102, E-Mail weiguining2013@163.com, chennh@imm.ac.cn
                487675 Kidney Blood Press Res 2018;43:220–233
                © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Pages: 14
                Original Paper


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