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      Spectroscopic analysis of stellar mass black-hole mergers in our local universe with ground-based gravitational wave detectors

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          Abstract

          Motivated by the recent discoveries of binary black-hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), we investigate the prospects of ground-based detectors to perform a spectroscopic analysis of signals emitted during the ringdown of the final Kerr black-hole formed by a stellar mass binary black-hole merger. Although it is unlikely that Advanced LIGO can measure multiple modes of the ringdown, assuming an optimistic rate of 240 Gpc\(^{-3}\)yr\(^{-1}\), upgrades to the existing LIGO detectors could measure multiple ringdown modes in \(\sim\)6 detections per year. New ground-based facilities such as Einstein Telescope or Cosmic Explorer could measure multiple ringdown modes in over 300 events per year. We perform Monte-Carlo injections of \(10^{6}\) binary black-hole mergers in a search volume defined by a sphere of radius 1500 Mpc centered at the detector, for various proposed ground-based detector models. We assume a uniform random distribution in component masses of the progenitor binaries, sky positions and orientations to investigate the fraction of the population that satisfy our criteria for detectability and resolvability of multiple ringdown modes. We investigate the detectability and resolvability of the sub-dominant modes \(l=m=3\), \(l=m=4\) and \(l=2, m=1\). Our results indicate that the modes with \(l=m=3\) and \(l=2, m=1\) are the most promising candidates for sub-dominant mode measurability. We find that for stellar mass black-hole mergers, resolvability is not a limiting criteria for these modes. We emphasize that the measurability of the \(l=2, m=1\) mode is not impeded by the resolvability criterion. To optimize the senstivity of a detector for ringdown signals, sensitivity should be tuned to the 300 to 500 Hz region.

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          Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger

          On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of \(1.0 \times 10^{-21}\). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 {\sigma}. The source lies at a luminosity distance of \(410^{+160}_{-180}\) Mpc corresponding to a redshift \(z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}\). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are \(36^{+5}_{-4} M_\odot\) and \(29^{+4}_{-4} M_\odot\), and the final black hole mass is \(62^{+4}_{-4} M_\odot\), with \(3.0^{+0.5}_{-0.5} M_\odot c^2\) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals.These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
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            GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

            We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 \(\sigma\). The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of \(3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7} \times 10^{-22}\). The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are \(14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3} M_{\odot}\) and \(7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3} M_{\odot}\) and the final black hole mass is \(20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1} M_{\odot}\). We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of \(440_{-190}^{+180}\) Mpc corresponding to a redshift \(0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}\). All uncertainties define a 90 % credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.
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              Axisymmetric Black Hole Has Only Two Degrees of Freedom

               B Carter (1971)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2016-07-26
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevD.94.084024
                1607.07845

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Phys. Rev. D 94, 084024 (2016)
                9 pages, 5 figures, 4 Tables
                gr-qc

                General relativity & Quantum cosmology

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