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      Sustained vasomotor control of skin microcirculation in Sherpasversusaltitude-naive lowlanders: Experimental evidence from Xtreme Everest 2

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          Methodological issues in the assessment of skin microvascular endothelial function in humans.

          The study of microvascular function can be performed in humans using laser Doppler flowmetry of the skin. This technology lends itself to a wide range of applications for studying the endothelial function of skin blood vessels. We review the advantages and limitations of postocclusive hyperemia, local thermal hyperemia, acetylcholine iontophoresis, flowmotion and association with microdialysis as tools with which to investigate skin microvascular endothelial function in humans. Postocclusive hyperemia, thermal hyperemia and acetylcholine iontophoresis provide integrated indexes of microvascular function rather than specific endothelial markers. However, they are valuable tools and can be used as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials in which the assessment of microvascular function in humans is required.
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            The human cutaneous circulation as a model of generalized microvascular function.

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              Wavelet analysis of oscillations in the peripheral blood circulation measured by laser Doppler technique.

              The wavelet transform technique, a time-frequency method with logarithmic frequency resolution, was used to analyze oscillations in human peripheral blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. The oscillations extended over a wide frequency scale and their periods varied in time. Within the frequency range studied, 0.0095-1.6 Hz, five characteristic oscillations were revealed, arising from both local and central regulatory mechanisms. After the insertion of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilators the spectra of blood flow markedly differed in the frequency interval 0.0095-0.02 Hz. In this way it was demonstrated that endothelial activity is a rhythmic process that contributes to oscillations in blood flow with a characteristic frequency of around 0.01 Hz. The study illustrates the potential of laser Doppler flowmetry combined with dynamical systems analysis for studies of both the micro- and macroscopic mechanisms of blood flow regulation in vivo.

                Author and article information

                Experimental Physiology
                Exp Physiol
                November 2018
                November 2018
                September 12 2018
                : 103
                : 11
                : 1494-1504
                [1 ]University College London Centre for Altitude Space and Extreme Environment Medicine; UCLH NIHR Biomedical Research Centre; Institute of Sport and Exercise Health; London UK
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine (CES) and Institute for Life Science; University of Southampton; Southampton UK
                [3 ]NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre; University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust; Southampton UK
                [4 ]Centre for Human Integrative Physiology; Faculty of Medicine; University of Southampton; Southampton UK
                [5 ]Institute of Developmental Sciences; Faculty of Medicine; University of Southampton; Southampton UK
                [6 ]Critical Care Unit; Royal Free Hospital; London UK
                © 2018




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