Prostaglandins comprise a structurally diverse family of cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, including thromboxane A<sub>2</sub>, PGD<sub>2</sub>, PGE<sub>2</sub>, PGF<sub>2α</sub> and PGI<sub>2</sub>. These prostaglandins are now known to act via different G-protein-coupled receptors. PGE<sub>2</sub>, the major prostaglandin synthesized along the nephron, interacts with at least four E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, three of which are highly expressed in distinct regions of the kidney. Each EP receptor also preferentially couples to a different signal transduction pathway, including stimulation of cAMP generation by the EP<sub>2</sub> and EP<sub>4</sub> receptors; inhibition of cAMP generation, via G<sub>i</sub> by EP<sub>3</sub> receptors, and activation of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis by EP<sub>1</sub> receptor. Other intrarenal prostanoid receptors include the thromboxane A<sub>2</sub> receptor and the prostacyclin receptor. These receptors also exhibit a discrete intrarenal distribution. The possibility of pharmacologically targeting each renal prostanoid receptor may provide a unique approach to modifying renal function in disease states.