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      Epidemiology of Bladder Cancer

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          Abstract

          Based on the latest GLOBOCAN data, bladder cancer accounts for 3% of global cancer diagnoses and is especially prevalent in the developed world. In the United States, bladder cancer is the sixth most incident neoplasm. A total of 90% of bladder cancer diagnoses are made in those 55 years of age and older, and the disease is four times more common in men than women. While the average 5-year survival in the US is 77%, the 5-year survival for those with metastatic disease is a measly 5%. The strongest risk factor for bladder cancer is tobacco smoking, which accounts for 50–65% of all cases. Occupational or environmental toxins likewise greatly contribute to disease burden (accounting for an estimated 20% of all cases), though the precise proportion can be obscured by the fact bladder cancer develops decades after exposure, even if the exposure only lasted several years. Schistosomiasis infection is the common cause of bladder cancer in regions of Africa and the Middle East and is considered the second most onerous tropical pathogen after malaria. With 81% of cases attributable to known risk factors (and only 7% to heritable mutations), bladder cancer is a prime candidate for prevention strategies. Smoking cessation, workplace safety practices, weight loss, exercise and schistosomiasis prevention (via water disinfection and mass drug administration) have all been shown to significantly decrease the risk of bladder cancer, which poses a growing burden around the world.

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          Most cited references55

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Cancer statistics, 2019

            Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2015, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2016, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2019, 1,762,450 new cancer cases and 606,880 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2006-2015) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% per year in men, whereas the cancer death rate (2007-2016) declined annually by 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The overall cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2016 by a total of 27%, translating into approximately 2,629,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the racial gap in cancer mortality is slowly narrowing, socioeconomic inequalities are widening, with the most notable gaps for the most preventable cancers. For example, compared with the most affluent counties, mortality rates in the poorest counties were 2-fold higher for cervical cancer and 40% higher for male lung and liver cancers during 2012-2016. Some states are home to both the wealthiest and the poorest counties, suggesting the opportunity for more equitable dissemination of effective cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment strategies. A broader application of existing cancer control knowledge with an emphasis on disadvantaged groups would undoubtedly accelerate progress against cancer.
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              The insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptor family in neoplasia: an update.

              Although several early phase clinical trials raised enthusiasm for the use of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R)-specific antibodies for cancer treatment, initial Phase III results in unselected patients have been disappointing. Further clinical studies may benefit from the use of predictive biomarkers to identify probable responders, the use of rational combination therapies and the consideration of alternative targeting strategies, such as ligand-specific antibodies and receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Targeting insulin and IGF signalling also needs to be considered in the broader context of the pathophysiology that relates obesity and diabetes to neoplasia, and the effects of anti-diabetic drugs, including metformin, on cancer risk and prognosis. The insulin and IGFI receptor family is also relevant to the development of PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med Sci (Basel)
                Med Sci (Basel)
                medsci
                Medical Sciences
                MDPI
                2076-3271
                13 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 8
                : 1
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Plains Regional Medical Group Internal Medicine, Clovis, NM 88101, USA
                [2 ]Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
                [3 ]Senior Research Associate, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02212, USA
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, Sovah Health, Martinsville, VA 24112, USA
                [5 ]Department of Medicine, Nephrology, Augusta University, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
                [6 ]Hematologist-Oncologist, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: rawlap@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +1-732-982-7357
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4361-8498
                Article
                medsci-08-00015
                10.3390/medsci8010015
                7151633
                32183076
                d92bff10-6b0f-4554-91e4-d9b8dce394d8
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 16 January 2020
                : 10 March 2020
                Categories
                Review

                bladder cancer,epidemiology,incidence,prevalence,mortality,prevention,risk factors

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