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      Mannose‐binding lectin in innate immunity: past, present and future

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          Abstract

          The human collectin, mannose‐binding lectin (MBL), is an important protein of the humoral innate immune system. With multiple carbohydrate‐recognition domains, it is able to bind to sugar groups displayed on the surfaces of a wide range of microorganisms and thereby provide first‐line defence. Importantly, it also activates the complement system through a distinctive third pathway, independent of both antibody and the C1 complex. Three single point mutations in exon 1 of the expressed human MBL‐2 gene appear to impair the generation of functional oligomers. Such deficiencies of functional protein are common in certain populations, e.g. in sub‐Saharan Africa, but virtually absent in others, e.g. indigenous Australians. MBL disease association studies have been a fruitful area of research and implicate a role for MBL in infective, inflammatory and autoimmune disease processes. Overall, there appears to be a genetic balance in which individuals generally benefit from high levels of the protein. However, in certain situations, reduced levels of circulating MBL may be beneficial to the host and this may explain the persistence of the deleterious gene polymorphisms in many population groups.

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          Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

          In March 2003, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered in association with cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV was determined, and the initial characterization of the viral genome is presented in this report. The genome of SARS-CoV is 29,727 nucleotides in length and has 11 open reading frames, and its genome organization is similar to that of other coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons showed that SARS-CoV is not closely related to any of the previously characterized coronaviruses.
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            The Genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus.

            We sequenced the 29,751-base genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus known as the Tor2 isolate. The genome sequence reveals that this coronavirus is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses, including two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins indicates that the virus does not closely resemble any of the three previously known groups of coronaviruses. The genome sequence will aid in the diagnosis of SARS virus infection in humans and potential animal hosts (using polymerase chain reaction and immunological tests), in the development of antivirals (including neutralizing antibodies), and in the identification of putative epitopes for vaccine development.
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              Protection afforded by sickle-cell trait against subtertian malareal infection.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Tissue Antigens
                Tissue Antigens
                10.1111/(ISSN)1399-0039
                TAN
                Tissue Antigens
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                0001-2815
                1399-0039
                01 September 2006
                September 2006
                : 68
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1111/tan.2006.68.issue-3 )
                : 193-209
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, UCL, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
                [ 2 ]Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, UCL, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Professor Malcolm W. Turner
Immunobiology Unit
Institute of Child Health
UCL
30 Guilford Street
London WC1N 1EH
UK
Tel: 0207 9052215
Fax: 0207 8138494
e‐mail: m.turner@ 123456ich.ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                TAN649
                10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x
                7169806
                16948640
                2006 Blackwell Munksgaard

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                Counts
                links-crossref: 0, links-pubmed: 0, Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 153, Pages: 17, Words: 0
                Product
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                September 2006
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:15.04.2020

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