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      Nonischemic Left Ventricular Scar as a Substrate of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death in Competitive Athletes

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          Abstract

          Background—

          The clinical profile and arrhythmic outcome of competitive athletes with isolated nonischemic left ventricular (LV) scar as evidenced by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance remain to be elucidated.

          Methods and Results—

          We compared 35 athletes (80% men, age: 14–48 years) with ventricular arrhythmias and isolated LV subepicardial/midmyocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (group A) with 38 athletes with ventricular arrhythmias and no LGE (group B) and 40 healthy control athletes (group C). A stria LGE pattern with subepicardial/midmyocardial distribution, mostly involving the lateral LV wall, was found in 27 (77%) of group A versus 0 controls (group C; P<0.001), whereas a spotty pattern of LGE localized at the junction of the right ventricle to the septum was respectively observed in 11 (31%) versus 10 (25%; P=0.52). All athletes with stria pattern showed ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant right bundle branch block morphology, 13 of 27 (48%) showed ECG repolarization abnormalities, and 5 of 27 (19%) showed echocardiographic hypokinesis of the lateral LV wall. The majority of athletes with no or spotty LGE pattern had ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant left bundle branch block morphology and no ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities. During a follow-up of 38±25 months, 6 of 27 (22%) athletes with stria pattern experienced malignant arrhythmic events such as appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (n=4), sustained ventricular tachycardia (n=1), or sudden death (n=1), compared with none of athletes with no or LGE spotty pattern and controls.

          Conclusions—

          Isolated nonischemic LV LGE with a stria pattern may be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death in the athlete. Because of its subepicardial/midmyocardial location, LV scar is often not detected by echocardiography.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Delayed enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies.

          Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies (NICMs) are chronic, progressive myocardial diseases with distinct patterns of morphological, functional, and electrophysiological changes. In the setting of cardiomyopathy (CM), determining the exact aetiology is important because the aetiology is directly related to treatment and patient survival. Determining the exact aetiology, however, can be difficult using currently available imaging techniques, such as echocardiography, radionuclide imaging or X-ray coronary angiography, since overlap of features between CMs may be encountered. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has recently emerged as a new non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing high-resolution images of the heart in any desired plane. Delayed contrast enhanced CMR (DE-CMR) can be used for non-invasive tissue characterization and may hold promise in differentiating ischaemic from NICMs, as the typical pattern of hyperenhancement can be classified as 'ischaemic-type' or 'non-ischaemic type' on the basis of pathophysiology of ischaemia. This article reviews the potential of DE-CMR to distinguish between ischaemic and NICM as well as to differentiate non-ischaemic aetiologies. Rather than simply describing various hyperenhancement patterns that may occur in different disease states, our goal will be (i) to provide an overall imaging approach for the diagnosis of CM and (ii) to demonstrate how this approach is based on the underlying relationships between contrast enhancement and myocardial pathophysiology.
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            Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Dysplasia, Dystrophy, or Myocarditis?

            Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a frequent cause of sudden death in young individuals and athletes. Although familial occurrence has been documented and a gene defect was recently localized on chromosome 14q23-q24 the etiopathogenesis of the disease is still obscure. A pathological study was conducted in 30 hearts with ARVC (age range, 15 to 65 years; mean, 28 years). In the 27 autopsy cases, the mode of death was sudden in 24 and congestive heart failure in 3. ECG, available in 19 cases, showed inverted T waves in the right precordial leads in 15 cases (79%) and ventricular arrhythmias in 15 (79%). Right ventricular aneurysms were present in 15 hearts (50%) and located in the inferior wall in 12. Left ventricle and ventricular septum were involved in 14 (47%) and 6 (20%) cases, respectively. Scattered foci of lymphocytes with myocardial death were observed in 20 cases (67%). Electron microscopy studies, although confirming the myocardial death and lymphocyte infiltrates, did not show any specific ultrastructural substrate. Two pathological patterns, fatty (40%) and fibrofatty (60%), were identified. The fibrofatty pattern was associated with a thinner right ventricular wall (P < .0001) and a higher occurrence of focal myocarditis (P < .001). In sections of right ventricular free wall with maximal fatty infiltration, the mean percentage area of fatty tissue was 35.9 +/- 11.1% in control versus 80.4 +/- 9.6% in the ARVC, fatty variety (P < .00001). Involvement of the left ventricle and/or ventricular septum, right ventricular aneurysms, and inflammation were found almost exclusively in the fibrofatty variety. In the fibrofatty variety of ARVC, the myocardial atrophy appears to be the consequence of acquired injury (myocyte death) and repair (fibrofatty replacement), mediated by patchy myocarditis. Whether the inflammation is a primary event or a reaction to spontaneous cell death remains unclear.
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              Fibrosis and cardiac arrhythmias.

              In this review article about fibrosis and arrhythmias, we show that the amount of collagen, a normal element of the heart muscle, increases with age and in heart disease. The relation between fibrosis and electrophysiological parameters such as conduction, fractionation of electrograms, abnormal impulse initiation as well as arrhythmogenicity is discussed. Next to the amount of fibrosis, we offer data suggesting that collagen texture too plays a role in conduction slowing and arrhythmia vulnerability. Data are shown revealing that fibrosis can also be induced by reduced sodium channel and connexin43 expression. Finally contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance to detect fibrosis and ventricular tachycardia vulnerability in a noninvasive way as well as a reduction of fibrosis and arrhythmogenicity by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
                Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
                HAE
                Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
                1941-3149
                1941-3084
                July 2016
                19 July 2016
                : 9
                : 7
                : e004229
                Affiliations
                From the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Sciences (A.Z., M.P.M., I.R., M.D.L., A.S., A.N., K.P., F.M., S.R., C.B., B.B., S.I., G.T., D.C.) and Division of Radiology, Department of Medicine (B.G.), University of Padova, Padova, Italy; Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliera di Padova, Padova, Italy (G.D.C.); Center for Sports Medicine, Treviso, Italy (P.S.); Unidad de Cardiologica del Deporte, Hospital Universitario Quiron, Madrid, Spain (L.S.); U.O. Cardiologia, Ospedale B.Ramazzini, Carpi (MO), Italy (G.P., E.D.M.); Center for Sports Medicine, CONI, Rome, Italy (A.P.); and Center for Sports Medicine, Padova, Italy (M.S.).
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Domenico Corrado, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Italy, Via N Giustiniani 2, 35121 Padova, Italy. E-mail domenico.corrado@ 123456unipd.it
                Article
                00009
                10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004229
                4956679
                27390211
                © 2016 The Authors.

                Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDervis License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, the use is noncommercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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                sudden death, sport, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, athletes

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