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      Treatment of EGFR T790M-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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      Targeted Oncology

      Springer Nature

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          Clinical and biological features associated with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in lung cancers.

          Mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancers are associated with increased sensitivity of these cancers to drugs that inhibit EGFR kinase activity. However, the role of such mutations in the pathogenesis of lung cancers is unclear. We sequenced exons 18-21 of the EGFR TK domain from genomic DNA isolated from 617 non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 524 normal lung tissue samples from the same patients and 36 neuroendocrine lung tumors collected from patients in Japan, Taiwan, the United States, and Australia and from 243 other epithelial cancers. Mutation status was compared with clinicopathologic features and with the presence of mutations in KRAS, a gene in the EGFR signaling pathway that is also frequently mutated in lung cancers. All statistical tests were two sided. We detected a total of 134 EGFR TK domain mutations in 130 (21%) of the 617 NSCLCs but not in any of the other carcinomas, nor in nonmalignant lung tissue from the same patients. In NSCLC patients, EGFR TK domain mutations were statistically significantly more frequent in never smokers than ever smokers (51% versus 10%), in adenocarcinomas versus cancer of other histologies (40% versus 3%), in patients of East Asian ethnicity versus other ethnicities (30% versus 8%), and in females versus males (42% versus 14%; all P < .001). EGFR TK domain mutation status was not associated with patient age at diagnosis, clinical stage, the presence of bronchioloalveolar histologic features, or overall survival. The EGFR TK domain mutations we detected were of three common types: in-frame deletions in exon 19, single missense mutations in exon 21, and in-frame duplications/insertions in exon 20. Rare missense mutations were also detected in exons 18, 20, and 21. KRAS gene mutations were present in 50 (8%) of the 617 NSCLCs but not in any tumors with an EGFR TK domain mutation. Mutations in either the EGFR TK domain or the KRAS gene can lead to lung cancer pathogenesis. EGFR TK domain mutations are the first molecular change known to occur specifically in never smokers.
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            Novel D761Y and common secondary T790M mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors.

            In patients whose lung adenocarcinomas harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain mutations, acquired resistance to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) has been associated with a second-site EGFR mutation, which leads to substitution of methionine for threonine at position 790 (T790M). We aimed to elucidate the frequency and nature of secondary EGFR mutations in patients with acquired resistance to TKI monotherapy. Tumor cells from patients with acquired resistance were examined for secondary EGFR kinase domain mutations by molecular analyses. Eight of 16 patients (50% observed rate; 95% confidence interval, 25-75%) had tumor cells with second-site EGFR mutations. Seven mutations were T790M and one was a novel D761Y mutation found in a brain metastasis. When combined with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation, the D761Y mutation modestly reduced the sensitivity of mutant EGFR to TKIs in both surrogate kinase and cell viability assays. In an autopsy case, the T790M mutation was found in multiple visceral metastases but not in a brain lesion. The T790M mutation is common in patients with acquired resistance. The limited spectrum of TKI-resistant mutations in EGFR, which binds to erlotinib in the active conformation, contrasts with a wider range of second-site mutations seen with acquired resistance to imatinib, which binds to ABL and KIT, respectively, in closed conformations. Collectively, our data suggest that the type and nature of kinase inhibitor resistance mutations may be influenced by both anatomic site and mode of binding to the kinase target.
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              Circulating tumour DNA profiling reveals heterogeneity of EGFR inhibitor resistance mechanisms in lung cancer patients

              Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) analysis facilitates studies of tumour heterogeneity. Here we employ CAPP-Seq ctDNA analysis to study resistance mechanisms in 43 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with the third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor rociletinib. We observe multiple resistance mechanisms in 46% of patients after treatment with first-line inhibitors, indicating frequent intra-patient heterogeneity. Rociletinib resistance recurrently involves MET, EGFR, PIK3CA, ERRB2, KRAS and RB1. We describe a novel EGFR L798I mutation and find that EGFR C797S, which arises in ∼33% of patients after osimertinib treatment, occurs in <3% after rociletinib. Increased MET copy number is the most frequent rociletinib resistance mechanism in this cohort and patients with multiple pre-existing mechanisms (T790M and MET) experience inferior responses. Similarly, rociletinib-resistant xenografts develop MET amplification that can be overcome with the MET inhibitor crizotinib. These results underscore the importance of tumour heterogeneity in NSCLC and the utility of ctDNA-based resistance mechanism assessment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Targeted Oncology
                Targ Oncol
                Springer Nature
                1776-2596
                1776-260X
                April 2018
                February 8 2018
                April 2018
                : 13
                : 2
                : 141-156
                Article
                10.1007/s11523-018-0554-5
                © 2018

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