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      Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer: A Novel Neuromodulation Technology in Alzheimer’s and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

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          Abstract

          Global research in the field of pharmacology has not yet found effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, alternative therapeutic strategies are under investigation, such as neurostimulation by physical means. Radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) is one of these technologies and has, until now, been used in clinical studies on several psychiatric and neurological disorders with encouraging results in the absence of side effects. Moreover, studies at the cellular level have shown that REAC technology, with the appropriate protocols, is able to induce neuronal differentiation both in murine embryonic cells and in human adult differentiated cells. Other studies have shown that REAC technology is able to positively influence senescence processes. Studies conducted on AD patients and in transgenic mouse models have shown promising results, suggesting REAC could be a useful therapy for certain components of AD.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Correlative memory deficits, Abeta elevation, and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice.

          Transgenic mice overexpressing the 695-amino acid isoform of human Alzheimer beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein containing a Lys670 --> Asn, Met671 --> Leu mutation had normal learning and memory in spatial reference and alternation tasks at 3 months of age but showed impairment by 9 to 10 months of age. A fivefold increase in Abeta(1-40) and a 14-fold increase in Abeta(1-42/43) accompanied the appearance of these behavioral deficits. Numerous Abeta plaques that stained with Congo red dye were present in cortical and limbic structures of mice with elevated amounts of Abeta. The correlative appearance of behavioral, biochemical, and pathological abnormalities reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease in these transgenic mice suggests new opportunities for exploring the pathophysiology and neurobiology of this disease.
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            Radioelectric asymmetric conveyed fields and human adipose-derived stem cells obtained with a nonenzymatic method and device: a novel approach to multipotency.

            Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been recently proposed as a suitable tool for regenerative therapies for their simple isolation procedure and high proliferative capability in culture. Although hASCs can be committed into different lineages in vitro, the differentiation is a low-yield and often incomplete process. We have recently developed a novel nonenzymatic method and device, named Lipogems, to obtain a fat tissue derivative highly enriched in pericytes/mesenchymal stem cells by mild mechanical forces from human lipoaspirates. When compared to enzymatically dissociated cells, Lipogems-derived hASCs exhibited enhanced transcription of vasculogenic genes in response to provasculogenic molecules, suggesting that these cells may be amenable for further optimization of their multipotency. Here we exposed Lipogems-derived hASCs to a radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC), an innovative device asymmetrically conveying radioelectric fields, affording both enhanced differentiating profiles in mouse embryonic stem cells and efficient direct multilineage reprogramming in human skin fibroblasts. We show that specific REAC exposure remarkably enhanced the transcription of prodynorphin, GATA-4, Nkx-2.5, VEGF, HGF, vWF, neurogenin-1, and myoD, indicating the commitment toward cardiac, vascular, neuronal, and skeletal muscle lineages, as inferred by the overexpression of a program of targeted marker proteins. REAC exposure also finely tuned the expression of stemness-related genes, including NANOG, SOX-2, and OCT-4. Noteworthy, the REAC-induced responses were fashioned at a significantly higher extent in Lipogems-derived than in enzymatically dissociated hASCs. Therefore, REAC-mediated interplay between radioelectric asymmetrically conveyed fields and Lipogems-derived hASCs appears to involve the generation of an ideal "milieu" to optimize multipotency expression from human adult stem cells in view of potential improvement of future cell therapy efforts.
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              Transcranial brain stimulation studies of episodic memory in young adults, elderly adults and individuals with memory dysfunction: a review.

              Transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation studies examining episodic memory in young participants have established the role of the left prefrontal cortex during encoding and the right prefrontal cortex during episodic retrieval. Furthermore, these techniques have been used to verify the reduction in functional asymmetry in the prefrontal cortex that occurs with ageing, at least during encoding, suggesting the existence of compensatory adjustments for the structural and neurotransmitter loss that occurs with physiological ageing. Nevertheless, it has been shown that several factors can modulate performance based on the type of material or strategy used. It is important to note that although numerous studies have addressed the role of the prefrontal cortex in episodic memory, a number of studies have also demonstrated the involvement of a more distributed neural network sustaining this function involving the temporal lobes and parietal cortices. Finally, it is evident that the use of transcranial stimulation techniques might represent a powerful tool not only for investigating the involvement of cerebral areas in a specific cognitive task but also for designing interventional therapies for individuals with memory impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychiatry
                Front Psychiatry
                Front. Psychiatry
                Frontiers in Psychiatry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-0640
                17 February 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1Rinaldi Fontani Foundation , Florence, Italy
                2Department of Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization, Rinaldi Fontani Institute , Florence, Italy
                3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute , Florence, Italy
                4IRET Foundation , Ozzano dell’Emilia, Italy
                5Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR), University of Bologna , Bologna, Italy
                6Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council , Segrate, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Niels Hansen, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany

                Reviewed by: Christian Gonzalez-Billault, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Pier Andrea Serra, University of Sassari, Italy

                *Correspondence: Salvatore Rinaldi, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Viale Belfiore 43, 50144 Firenze, Italy e-mail: srinaldi@ 123456irf.it

                This article was submitted to Neurodegeneration, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry.

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00022
                4330882
                Copyright © 2015 Rinaldi, Calzà, Giardino, Biella, Zippo and Fontani.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 4, Words: 3787
                Categories
                Psychiatry
                Perspective Article

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