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      Inflammaging: a new immune–metabolic viewpoint for age-related diseases

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d2750357e152">Ageing and age-related diseases share some basic mechanistic pillars that largely converge on inflammation. During ageing, chronic, sterile, low-grade inflammation - called inflammaging - develops, which contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. From an evolutionary perspective, a variety of stimuli sustain inflammaging, including pathogens (non-self), endogenous cell debris and misplaced molecules (self) and nutrients and gut microbiota (quasi-self). A limited number of receptors, whose degeneracy allows them to recognize many signals and to activate the innate immune responses, sense these stimuli. In this situation, metaflammation (the metabolic inflammation accompanying metabolic diseases) is thought to be the form of chronic inflammation that is driven by nutrient excess or overnutrition; metaflammation is characterized by the same mechanisms underpinning inflammaging. The gut microbiota has a central role in both metaflammation and inflammaging owing to its ability to release inflammatory products, contribute to circadian rhythms and crosstalk with other organs and systems. We argue that chronic diseases are not only the result of ageing and inflammaging; these diseases also accelerate the ageing process and can be considered a manifestation of accelerated ageing. Finally, we propose the use of new biomarkers (DNA methylation, glycomics, metabolomics and lipidomics) that are capable of assessing biological versus chronological age in metabolic diseases. </p>

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          Most cited references 121

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          Has the microbiota played a critical role in the evolution of the adaptive immune system?

           Y Lee,  S. Mazmanian (2010)
          Although microbes have been classically viewed as pathogens, it is now well established that the majority of host-bacterial interactions are symbiotic. During development and into adulthood, gut bacteria shape the tissues, cells, and molecular profile of our gastrointestinal immune system. This partnership, forged over many millennia of coevolution, is based on a molecular exchange involving bacterial signals that are recognized by host receptors to mediate beneficial outcomes for both microbes and humans. We explore how specific aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced by intestinal commensal bacteria. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiosis between commensal bacteria and humans may redefine how we view the evolution of adaptive immunity and consequently how we approach the treatment of numerous immunologic disorders.
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            Nutrient sensing and inflammation in metabolic diseases.

            The proper functioning of the pathways that are involved in the sensing and management of nutrients is central to metabolic homeostasis and is therefore among the most fundamental requirements for survival. Metabolic systems are integrated with pathogen-sensing and immune responses, and these pathways are evolutionarily conserved. This close functional and molecular integration of the immune and metabolic systems is emerging as a crucial homeostatic mechanism, the dysfunction of which underlies many chronic metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. In this Review we provide an overview of several important networks that sense and manage nutrients and discuss how they integrate with immune and inflammatory pathways to influence the physiological and pathological metabolic states in the body.
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              Is Open Access

              Aging of blood can be tracked by DNA methylation changes at just three CpG sites

              Background Human aging is associated with DNA methylation changes at specific sites in the genome. These epigenetic modifications may be used to track donor age for forensic analysis or to estimate biological age. Results We perform a comprehensive analysis of methylation profiles to narrow down 102 age-related CpG sites in blood. We demonstrate that most of these age-associated methylation changes are reversed in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Methylation levels at three age-related CpGs - located in the genes ITGA2B, ASPA and PDE4C - were subsequently analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing of 151 blood samples. This epigenetic aging signature facilitates age predictions with a mean absolute deviation from chronological age of less than 5 years. This precision is higher than age predictions based on telomere length. Variation of age predictions correlates moderately with clinical and lifestyle parameters supporting the notion that age-associated methylation changes are associated more with biological age than with chronological age. Furthermore, patients with acquired aplastic anemia or dyskeratosis congenita - two diseases associated with progressive bone marrow failure and severe telomere attrition - are predicted to be prematurely aged. Conclusions Our epigenetic aging signature provides a simple biomarker to estimate the state of aging in blood. Age-associated DNA methylation changes are counteracted in iPSCs. On the other hand, over-estimation of chronological age in bone marrow failure syndromes is indicative for exhaustion of the hematopoietic cell pool. Thus, epigenetic changes upon aging seem to reflect biological aging of blood.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Endocrinology
                Nat Rev Endocrinol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5029
                1759-5037
                July 25 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41574-018-0059-4
                30046148
                d9451d42-dca8-45b5-934e-861a39d4c29e
                © 2018

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