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      Axicabtagene Ciloleucel CAR T-Cell Therapy in Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma

      , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

      New England Journal of Medicine

      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)

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          Abstract

          In a phase 1 trial, axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, showed efficacy in patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma after the failure of conventional therapy.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

          High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have relapses. In this report we describe a prospective randomized study of such treatment. A total of 215 patients with relapses of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated between July 1987 and June 1994. All patients received two courses of conventional chemotherapy. The 109 patients who had a response to chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive four courses of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (54 patients) or radiotherapy plus intensive chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (55 patients). The overall rate of response to conventional chemotherapy was 58 percent; among patients with relapses after chemotherapy, the response rate was 64 percent, and among those with relapses during chemotherapy, the response rate was 21 percent. There were three deaths from toxic effects among the patients in the transplantation group, and none among those in the group receiving chemotherapy without transplantation. The two groups did not differ in terms of prognostic factors. The median follow-up time was 63 months. The response rate was 84 percent after bone marrow transplantation and 44 percent after chemotherapy without transplantation. At five years, the rate of event-free survival was 46 percent in the transplantation group and 12 percent in the group receiving chemotherapy without transplantation (P = 0.001), and the rate of overall survival was 53 and 32 percent, respectively (P = 0.038). As compared with conventional chemotherapy, treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation increases event-free and overall survival in patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relapse.
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            Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells.

            Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) redirect T cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, providing a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. Despite extensive clinical use, the attributes of CAR co-stimulatory domains that impact persistence and resistance to exhaustion of CAR-T cells remain largely undefined. Here, we report the influence of signaling domains of coreceptors CD28 and 4-1BB on the metabolic characteristics of human CAR T cells. Inclusion of 4-1BB in the CAR architecture promoted the outgrowth of CD8(+) central memory T cells that had significantly enhanced respiratory capacity, increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, CAR T cells with CD28 domains yielded effector memory cells with a genetic signature consistent with enhanced glycolysis. These results provide, at least in part, a mechanistic insight into the differential persistence of CAR-T cells expressing 4-1BB or CD28 signaling domains in clinical trials and inform the design of future CAR T cell therapies.
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              Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: optimizing outcome in the context of clinical and biologic heterogeneity.

              Although the majority of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be cured with standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), patients who fail R-CHOP have a dismal outcome. Thus, optimization of front-line therapy, as well as the development of more effective salvage strategies, remains an important objective. Advances in molecular genetics have vastly improved our understanding of the biological diversity of DLBCL and have led to the discovery of key oncogenic pathways. In addition to the major molecular designations of germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell subtypes, next-generation sequencing technologies have unveiled the remarkable complexity of DLBCL and identified unique molecular targets that may be differentially exploited for therapeutic benefit. These findings have translated into a growing list of promising novel agents. Moving forward, it is of paramount importance to recognize the heterogeneity of DLBCL and to investigate these targeted agents within patient populations who are most likely to benefit. It will be necessary to prioritize drugs that affect key driver pathways and to combine them rationally to optimize their benefit. Improved prognostication and the availability of predictive biomarkers will be crucial to allow for the possibility of individualized risk-adapted therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                December 28 2017
                December 28 2017
                : 377
                : 26
                : 2531-2544
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1707447
                5882485
                29226797
                © 2017
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