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      Three-dimensional free breathing whole heart cardiovascular magnetic resonance T 1 mapping at 3 T

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          Abstract

          Background

          This study demonstrates a three-dimensional (3D) free-breathing native myocardial T 1 mapping sequence at 3 T.

          Methods

          The proposed sequence acquires three differently T 1-weighted volumes. The first two volumes receive a saturation pre-pulse with different recovery time. The third volume is acquired without magnetization preparation and after a significant recovery time. Respiratory navigator gating and volume-interleaved acquisition are adopted to mitigate misregistration. The proposed sequence was validated through simulation, phantom experiments and in vivo experiments in 12 healthy adult subjects.

          Results

          In phantoms, good agreement on T 1 measurement was achieved between the proposed sequence and the reference inversion recovery spin echo sequence (R 2 = 0.99). Homogeneous 3D T 1 maps were obtained from healthy adult subjects, with a T 1 value of 1476 ± 53 ms and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 6.1 ± 1.4% over the whole left-ventricular myocardium. The averaged septal T 1 was 1512 ± 60 ms with a CV of 2.1 ± 0.5%.

          Conclusion

          Free-breathing 3D native T 1 mapping at 3 T is feasible and may be applicable in myocardial assessment. The proposed 3D T 1 mapping sequence is suitable for applications in which larger coverage is desired beyond that available with single-shot parametric mapping, or breath-holding is unfeasible.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12968-018-0487-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Standardized myocardial segmentation and nomenclature for tomographic imaging of the heart. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Cardiac Imaging Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association.

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            Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) for high-resolution T1 mapping of the heart.

            A novel pulse sequence scheme is presented that allows the measurement and mapping of myocardial T1 in vivo on a 1.5 Tesla MR system within a single breath-hold. Two major modifications of conventional Look-Locker (LL) imaging are introduced: 1) selective data acquisition, and 2) merging of data from multiple LL experiments into one data set. Each modified LL inversion recovery (MOLLI) study consisted of three successive LL inversion recovery (IR) experiments with different inversion times. We acquired images in late diastole using a single-shot steady-state free-precession (SSFP) technique, combined with sensitivity encoding to achieve a data acquisition window of < 200 ms duration. We calculated T1 using signal intensities from regions of interest and pixel by pixel. T1 accuracy at different heart rates derived from simulated ECG signals was tested in phantoms. T1 estimates showed small systematic error for T1 values from 191 to 1196 ms. In vivo T1 mapping was performed in two healthy volunteers and in one patient with acute myocardial infarction before and after administration of Gd-DTPA. T1 values for myocardium and noncardiac structures were in good agreement with values available from the literature. The region of infarction was clearly visualized. MOLLI provides high-resolution T1 maps of human myocardium in native and post-contrast situations within a single breath-hold. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Human non-contrast T1 values and correlation with histology in diffuse fibrosis

              Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to diffuse fibrosis in the myocardium, which is linked to adverse outcome. Myocardial T1 values change with tissue composition. Objective To test the hypothesis that our recently developed non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping sequence could identify myocardial fibrosis without contrast agent. Design, setting and patients A prospective CMR non-contrast T1 mapping study of 109 patients with moderate and severe AS and 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Methods CMR at 1.5 T, including non-contrast T1 mapping using a shortened modified Look–Locker inversion recovery sequence, was carried out. Biopsy samples for histological assessment of collagen volume fraction (CVF%) were obtained in 19 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Results There was a significant correlation between T1 values and CVF% (r=0.65, p=0.002). Mean T1 values were significantly longer in all groups with severe AS (972±33 ms in severe asymptomatic, 1014±38 ms in severe symptomatic) than in normal controls (944±16 ms) (p<0.05). The strongest associations with T1 values were for aortic valve area (r=−0.40, p=0.001) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (r=0.36, p=0.008), and these were the only independent predictors on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Non-contrast T1 values are increased in patients with severe AS and further increase in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients. T1 values lengthened with greater LVMI and correlated with the degree of biopsy-quantified fibrosis. This may provide a useful clinical assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ruiguo.ok@gmail.com
                zhensenchen@gmail.com
                wysrocket@126.com
                daniel.herzka@gmail.com
                luo_jianwen@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
                +86-10-6279-2874 , dinghy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
                Journal
                J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
                J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
                Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
                BioMed Central (London )
                1097-6647
                1532-429X
                17 September 2018
                17 September 2018
                2018
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0662 3178, GRID grid.12527.33, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, , School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, ; Beijing, China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 9311, GRID grid.21107.35, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, ; Baltimore, MD USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 5165, GRID grid.94365.3d, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, , National Institutes of Health, ; Bethesda, MD USA
                Article
                487
                10.1186/s12968-018-0487-2
                6139904
                30220254
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: 2016YFC0104700
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: 2017YFC0108700
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2018

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