0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The effects of livestock grazing and climate variation on vegetation and grasshopper communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

      Journal of Orthoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Grasshoppers are important herbivores of North American semi-arid grasslands and shrublands, and vegetation and climate are key factors controlling their species compositions and population dynamics. Domestic livestock grazing is a historic and a current landscape-scale ecological perturbation that has caused reductions of perennial grasses and increases in woody shrubs and weedy annual herbs in desert grassland communities. Climate variation also affects vegetation and grasshopper production, and the combined effects of livestock grazing and climate variation on vegetation and grasshoppers have not been adequately studied in the American Southwest. I measured vegetation and grasshoppers for five years at a series of five semi-arid sites in the northern Chihuahuan Desert to evaluate the interactive effects of short-term livestock grazing and climate variation on plant and grasshopper community structure and species abundances. The study sites ranged from shrub dominated to grass dominated landscapes, with livestock fence lines separating land that was grazed at 30% annual forage utilization, and lands on the other sides of the fences excluded from grazing for at least 20 years. I assigned grasshopper species to life-form guilds based on their ecomorphologies and their microhabitat substrate uses that I observed. A wet spring/dry summer El Niño event occurred at the beginning of the study, and a dry spring/wet summer La Niña event occurred at the end of the study. Livestock grazing changed plant and grasshopper species compositions and abundances significantly during those wet years, further favoring annual forbs, annual grasses and non-graminicole grasshoppers on grazed lands during wet years, while favoring perennial grasses and graminicoles on non-grazed lands also during wet years. The biotic communities at all sites probably supported more perennial grasses and more graminicoles prior to European settlement and livestock grazing that began over a century before this study.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 43

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change.

          Significant changes in physical and biological systems are occurring on all continents and in most oceans, with a concentration of available data in Europe and North America. Most of these changes are in the direction expected with warming temperature. Here we show that these changes in natural systems since at least 1970 are occurring in regions of observed temperature increases, and that these temperature increases at continental scales cannot be explained by natural climate variations alone. Given the conclusions from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely to be due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, and furthermore that it is likely that there has been significant anthropogenic warming over the past 50 years averaged over each continent except Antarctica, we conclude that anthropogenic climate change is having a significant impact on physical and biological systems globally and in some continents.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            The Niche Exploitation Pattern of the Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher

             Richard Root (1967)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Orthoptera Research
                JOR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1937-2426
                1082-6467
                June 12 2018
                June 12 2018
                : 27
                : 1
                : 35-51
                Article
                10.3897/jor.27.19945
                © 2018

                Comments

                Comment on this article