Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) is a recombinant, humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody. Erlotinib HCl (Tarceva, OSI-774; OSI Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) is a potent, reversible, highly selective and orally available HER-1/epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Preclinical data in various xenograft models produced greater growth inhibition than with either agent alone. Additionally, both agents have demonstrated benefit in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase I/II study in two centers examined erlotinib and bevacizumab (A+T) in patients with nonsquamous stage IIIB/IV NSCLC with > or = one prior chemotherapy. In phase I, erlotinib 150 mg/day orally plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously every 21 days was established as the phase II dose, although no dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Phase II assessed the efficacy and tolerability of A+T at this dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. ResultsForty patients were enrolled and treated in this study (34 patients at phase II dose); the median age was 59 years (range, 36 to 72 years), 21 were female, 30 had adenocarcinoma histology, nine were never-smokers, and 22 had > or = two prior regimens (three patients had > or = four prior regimens). The most common adverse events were mild to moderate rash, diarrhea, and proteinuria. Preliminary data showed no pharmacokinetic interaction between A + T. Eight patients (20.0%; 95% CI, 7.6% to 32.4%) had partial responses and 26 (65.0%; 95% CI, 50.2% to 79.8%) had stable disease as their best response. The median overall survival for the 34 patients treated at the phase II dose was 12.6 months, with progression-free survival of 6.2 months. Encouraging antitumor activity and safety of A + T support further development of this combination for patients with advanced NSCLC and other solid tumors.