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      Corneal Epithelial Stem Cell Supernatant in the Treatment of Severe Dry Eye Disease: A Pilot Study

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To report the subjective assessment of topical self-administered, cadaver-derived corneal epithelial stem cell supernatant for treatment of severe dry eye disease (DED).

          Methods

          Thirty-four eyes of 17 patients with advanced DED as defined by Standardized Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED TM) questionnaire ≥14, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI©) score ≥40 and documented attempt of at least six conventional dry eye therapies were enrolled into a prospective clinical trial at a single private practice institution. Treatment consisted of patient self-administered topical instillation of the corneal epithelial stem cell-derived product four times daily in both eyes for 12 weeks. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were taken with the SPEED TM questionnaire (the main outcome variable), OSDI© score and visual analog score (VAS; UNC Dry Eye Management Scale©), and objective clinical measurements were taken with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal topographic index measurements and tear film osmolarity. These measurements were compared at baseline versus the endpoint at completion of the 12-week treatment.

          Results

          All 34 eyes tolerated the treatment without any adverse events or significant side effects. Compared with baseline, both the SPEED TM questionnaire and the VAS significantly improved at the conclusion of the 12-week treatment (p = 0.0054 and p = 0.0202, respectively). The OSDI© improved by an average of 10.9 points after the treatment but was not statistically significant (p = 0.1409). There were no significant changes in any of the objective clinical measurements. None of the study subjects failed to complete the treatment course, experienced decrease in any of the PROMs or lost one or more lines of BCVA during the follow-up period.

          Conclusion

          Topical corneal epithelial stem cell-derived supernatant that can be self-administered by the patient shows promise at improving patient symptoms and quality of life in the setting of severe DED that is unresponsive to conventional therapies.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 41

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          TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report

          The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition. In the light of new data, neurosensory abnormalities were also included in the definition for the first time. In the classification of DED, recent evidence supports a scheme based on the pathophysiology where aqueous deficient and evaporative dry eye exist as a continuum, such that elements of each are considered in diagnosis and management. Central to the scheme is a positive diagnosis of DED with signs and symptoms, and this is directed towards management to restore homeostasis. The scheme also allows consideration of various related manifestations, such as non-obvious disease involving ocular surface signs without related symptoms, including neurotrophic conditions where dysfunctional sensation exists, and cases where symptoms exist without demonstrable ocular surface signs, including neuropathic pain. This approach is not intended to override clinical assessment and judgment but should prove helpful in guiding clinical management and research.
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            TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

            The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/non-modifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research.
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              Reliability and validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index.

              To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. Participants (109 patients with dry eye and 30 normal controls) completed the OSDI, the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), the McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire, the Short Form-12 (SF-12) Health Status Questionnaire, and an ophthalmic examination including Schirmer tests, tear breakup time, and fluorescein and lissamine green staining. Factor analysis identified 3 subscales of the OSDI: vision-related function, ocular symptoms, and environmental triggers. Reliability (measured by Cronbach alpha) ranged from good to excellent for the overall instrument and each subscale, and test-retest reliability was good to excellent. The OSDI was valid, effectively discriminating between normal, mild to moderate, and severe dry eye disease as defined by both physician's assessment and a composite disease severity score. The OSDI also correlated significantly with the McMonnies questionnaire, the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, the physical component summary score of the Short Form-12, patient perception of symptoms, and artificial tear usage. The OSDI is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the severity of dry eye disease, and it possesses the necessary psychometric properties to be used as an end point in clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clin Ophthalmol
                opth
                clinop
                Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove
                1177-5467
                1177-5483
                16 July 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 3097-3107
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Panhandle Eye Group , Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA
                [2 ]Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center , Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA
                [3 ]Oklahoma Blood Institute , Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sloan W Rush Panhandle Eye Group , 7400 Fleming Ave, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USATel +1 806 353-0125 Email sloan.rush@paneye.com
                Article
                322079
                10.2147/OPTH.S322079
                8291803
                34295148
                © 2021 Rush et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 42, Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funded by: funding to report;
                There is no funding to report.
                Categories
                Clinical Trial Report

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