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      An update and revision of the Andrena fauna of Morocco (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Andrenidae) with the description of eleven new North African species

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          Abstract

          Morocco has a diverse bee fauna, but one that has also been relatively understudied in recent years. Here a revision of the species-rich genus Andrena is presented that reveals eleven new species for science and substantially improves our understanding of North African Andrena . From Morocco, Andrena ( Aciandrena) semiadesus Wood, sp. nov., Andrena ( Aciandrena) triangulivalvis Wood sp. nov., Andrena ( Campylogaster) sparsipunctata Wood sp. nov., Andrena ( Carandrena) hebescens Wood sp. nov., Andrena ( Cnemidandrena) niveofacies Wood sp. nov., Andrena ( incertae sedis) tenebricorpus Wood sp. nov., Andrena ( Notandrena) acutidentis Wood sp. nov., Andrena ( Poliandrena) breviceps Wood sp. nov., and Andrena ( Poliandrena) farinosoides Wood sp. nov. are described and their ecology is discussed. Andrena ( Aciandrena) astrella Warncke, 1975 is synonymised with Andrena ( Aciandrena) fulica Warncke, 1974 syn. nov. The unknown female of Andrena ( Nobandrena) ounifa Warncke, 1974, and the unknown male of Andrena ( Poliandrena) guichardi Warncke, 1980 are described. Andrena ( incertae sedis) gafsensis Wood sp. nov. from Tunisia is described due to its similarity to Andrena tenebricorpus . Andrena ( Poecilandrena) nigriclypeus Wood sp. nov. from Algeria is also described as it was collected within 10 km of the Moroccan border. A further 18 species are recorded in Morocco for the first time. Andrena ( Melandrena) nitida (Müller, 1776) and Andrena ( Notandrena) nitidiuscula Schenck, 1853 are removed from the Moroccan list due to historic problems in the application of these names to Mediterranean taxa.

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          Back to the future: museum specimens in population genetics.

          Museums and other natural history collections (NHC) worldwide house millions of specimens. With the advent of molecular genetic approaches these collections have become the source of many fascinating population studies in conservation genetics that contrast historical with present-day genetic diversity. Recent developments in molecular genetics and genomics and the associated statistical tools have opened up the further possibility of studying evolutionary change directly. As we discuss here, we believe that NHC specimens provide a largely underutilized resource for such investigations. However, because DNA extracted from NHC samples is degraded, analyses of such samples are technically demanding and many potential pitfalls exist. Thus, we propose a set of guidelines that outline the steps necessary to begin genetic investigations using specimens from NHC.
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            Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator.

            Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different ecosystem preferences but only subtly differing adults with no genitalic divergence. Our results add to the evidence that cryptic species are prevalent in tropical regions, a critical issue in efforts to document global species richness. They also illustrate the value of DNA barcoding, especially when coupled with traditional taxonomic tools, in disclosing hidden diversity.
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              DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies.

              DNA barcoding has been evaluated for many animal taxa and is now advocated as a reliable and rapid means for species-level identification. The coming-to-light of this identification tool is timely as we are now facing perhaps the greatest rate of species loss in recent millennia. This study contributes to an ever-increasing number of published accounts of DNA barcoding successfully and accurately distinguishing animal taxa, in this instance, the bee fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada. Most members of this well-known fauna were resolved with particular clarity; the average intraspecific divergence was less than 0.5%, and COI sequences from over 75% of the province's species are now in the Barcodes of Life Data System. DNA barcoding also revealed some surprises within this fauna, including the possible recognition of two undescribed genetically unique species, one in the genus Ceratina (subgenus Zadontomerus), the second in the genus Andrena (subgenus Larandrena); both are presently receiving further taxonomic study. In addition, DNA barcoding has allowed sex-associations among two pairs of cleptoparasitic species. The resulting utility of DNA barcoding for ecological studies of bee communities is discussed. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                07 October 2020
                : 974
                : 31-92
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Zoologie, Université de Mons, 7000, Mons, Belgium Université de Mons Mons Belgium
                [2 ] International Center of Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat, Morocco International Center of Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Rabat Morocco
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Thomas James Wood ( thomasjames.wood@ 123456umons.ac.be )

                Academic editor: Thorleif Dörfel

                Article
                54794
                10.3897/zookeys.974.54794
                7557337
                Thomas James Wood, Denis Michez, Diego Cejas, Patrick Lhomme, Pierre Rasmont

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Federal German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique - FNRS Research Foundation of Flanders – FWO, under EOS Project (n°3094785)
                Categories
                Research Article
                Andrenidae
                Hymenoptera
                Taxonomy
                Algeria
                Morocco
                Tunisia

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