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      Robotic arm assisted total knee arthroplasty workflow optimization, operative times and learning curve

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          Abstract

          Robotic arm assisted total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) has many potential benefits including advanced preoperative templating, restoration of mechanical alignment, accuracy of bony resection, robust safety mechanisms, and dynamic gap balancing. One of the most frequently quoted drawbacks preventing experienced surgeons from adopting this technology is the perceived increase in surgical time. This technique paper outlines the general concepts used to improve operating room efficiency as well as the step-by-step workflow to consistently perform RTKA with surgical times under 60 minutes. Although the clinical and functional results of RTKA are just beginning to be described in literature, this manuscript demonstrates that with proper technique and workflow, surgical time should not be a significant factor to deter surgeons from adopting this new technology.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Technique and first clinical results of robot-assisted total knee replacement.

          Total knee replacement (TKR) is a common procedure for treatment of severe gonarthrosis, but the outcome may be unsatisfactory due to primary malalignment of the prosthetic components. In order to improve precision and accuracy of this surgical procedure, a commercial robotic surgical system (CASPAR) has been adapted to assist the surgeon in the preoperative planning and intraoperative execution of TKR. So far, 70 patients with idiopathic gonarthrosis were successfully treated with a robot-assisted technique in our institution. No major adverse events related to the use of the robotic system have been observed. The mean difference between preoperatively planned and postoperatively achieved tibiofemoral alignment was 0.8 degrees (0-4.1 degrees ) in the robotic group vs. 2.6 degrees (0-7 degrees ) in a manually operated historical control group of 50 patients. A clear advantage of robot-assisted TKR seems to be the ability to execute a highly precise preoperative plan based on computed tomography (CT) scans. Due to better alignment of the prosthetic components and improved bone-implant fit, implant loosening is anticipated to be diminished which may be most evident in non-cemented prostheses. Current disadvantages such as the need for placement of fiducial markers, increased operating times and higher overall costs have to be resolved in the future.
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            Robotic-arm assisted total knee arthroplasty is associated with improved early functional recovery and reduced time to hospital discharge compared with conventional jig-based total knee arthroplasty

            Aims The objective of this study was to compare early postoperative functional outcomes and time to hospital discharge between conventional jig-based total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and robotic-arm assisted TKA. Patients and Methods This prospective cohort study included 40 consecutive patients undergoing conventional jig-based TKA followed by 40 consecutive patients receiving robotic-arm assisted TKA. All surgical procedures were performed by a single surgeon using the medial parapatellar approach with identical implant designs and standardized postoperative inpatient rehabilitation. Inpatient functional outcomes and time to hospital discharge were collected in all study patients. Results There were no systematic differences in baseline characteristics between the conventional jig-based TKA and robotic-arm assisted TKA treatment groups with respect to age (p = 0.32), gender (p = 0.50), body mass index (p = 0.17), American Society of Anesthesiologists score (p = 0.88), and preoperative haemoglobin level (p = 0.82). Robotic-arm assisted TKA was associated with reduced postoperative pain (p < 0.001), decreased analgesia requirements (p < 0.001), decreased reduction in postoperative haemoglobin levels (p < 0.001), shorter time to straight leg raise (p < 0.001), decreased number of physiotherapy sessions (p < 0.001) and improved maximum knee flexion at discharge (p < 0.001) compared with conventional jig-based TKA. Median time to hospital discharge in robotic-arm assisted TKA was 77 hours (interquartile range (IQR) 74 to 81) compared with 105 hours (IQR 98 to 126) in conventional jig-based TKA (p < 0.001). Conclusion Robotic-arm assisted TKA was associated with decreased pain, improved early functional recovery and reduced time to hospital discharge compared with conventional jig-based TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:930–7.
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              Robotic-Arm–Assisted vs Conventional Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty. The 2-Year Clinical Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

              Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) for treatment of medial compartment osteoarthritis has potential benefits over total knee arthroplasty but UKA has a higher revision rate. Robotic-assisted UKA is increasingly common and offers more accurate implant positioning and limb alignment, lower early postoperative pain but evidence of functional outcome is lacking. The aim was to assess the clinical outcomes of a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial, comparing robotic-arm-assisted UKA with conventional surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Arthroplast Today
                Arthroplast Today
                Arthroplasty Today
                Elsevier
                2352-3441
                27 June 2019
                December 2019
                27 June 2019
                : 5
                : 4
                : 465-470
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rothman Institute, Egg Harbor Township, NJ, USA
                [b ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inspira Medical Center, Vineland, NJ, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inspira Medical Center, Vineland, NJ, USA. Tel.: +1 281 732 1120. max.lingamfelter@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2352-3441(19)30040-8
                10.1016/j.artd.2019.04.007
                6921119
                © 2019 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Surgical Technique

                tka, robotics, efficiency, workflow, navigation

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