+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 53 control participants. Performance under different task conditions were tested both in response to visual and auditory information, and requiring a motor or verbal response. Individuals with ASD showed significant more control dysfunctions than typically developing participants on the auditory computer task. Inhibitory control and attentional flexibility predicted RRB in everyday life. Specifically, response inhibition in reaction to visual information and task switching in reaction to auditory information predicted motor and sensory stereotyped behavior.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 51

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Executive dysfunction in autism.

           E. Hill (2003)
          "Executive function" is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, impulse control, inhibition and mental flexibility, as well as for the initiation and monitoring of action. The primacy of executive dysfunction in autism is a topic of much debate, as are recent attempts to examine subtypes of executive function within autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders that are considered to implicate frontal lobe function. This article will review cognitive behavioural studies of planning, mental flexibility and inhibition in autism. It is concluded that more detailed research is needed to fractionate the executive system in autism by assessing a wide range of executive functions as well as their neuroanatomical correlates in the same individuals across the lifespan.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children's Version (AQ-Child).

            The Autism Spectrum Quotient-Children's Version (AQ-Child) is a parent-report questionnaire that aims to quantify autistic traits in children 4-11 years old. The range of scores on the AQ-Child is 0-150. It was administered to children with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) (n = 540) and a general population sample (n = 1,225). Results showed a significant difference in scores between those with an ASC diagnosis and the general population. Receiver-operating-characteristic analyses showed that using a cut-off score of 76, the AQ-Child has high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (95%). The AQ-Child showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Factor analysis provided support for four of the five AQ-Child design subscales. Future studies should evaluate how the AQ-C performs in population screening.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Preference for geometric patterns early in life as a risk factor for autism.

              Early identification efforts are essential for the early treatment of the symptoms of autism but can only occur if robust risk factors are found. Children with autism often engage in repetitive behaviors and anecdotally prefer to visually examine geometric repetition, such as the moving blade of a fan or the spinning of a car wheel. The extent to which a preference for looking at geometric repetition is an early risk factor for autism has yet to be examined. To determine if toddlers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 14 to 42 months prefer to visually examine dynamic geometric images more than social images and to determine if visual fixation patterns can correctly classify a toddler as having an ASD. Toddlers were presented with a 1-minute movie depicting moving geometric patterns on 1 side of a video monitor and children in high action, such as dancing or doing yoga, on the other. Using this preferential looking paradigm, total fixation duration and the number of saccades within each movie type were examined using eye tracking technology. University of California, San Diego Autism Center of Excellence. One hundred ten toddlers participated in final analyses (37 with an ASD, 22 with developmental delay, and 51 typical developing toddlers). Total fixation time within the geometric patterns or social images and the number of saccades were compared between diagnostic groups. Overall, toddlers with an ASD as young as 14 months spent significantly more time fixating on dynamic geometric images than other diagnostic groups. If a toddler spent more than 69% of his or her time fixating on geometric patterns, then the positive predictive value for accurately classifying that toddler as having an ASD was 100%. A preference for geometric patterns early in life may be a novel and easily detectable early signature of infants and toddlers at risk for autism.

                Author and article information

                +31 (0)8875 58636 ,
                J Autism Dev Disord
                J Autism Dev Disord
                Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
                Springer US (New York )
                5 June 2015
                5 June 2015
                : 45
                : 10
                : 3148-3158
                [ ]Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [ ]Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Reinier Postlaan 12, 6525 GC Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [ ]Karakter Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Reinier Postlaan 12, 6525 GC Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [ ]Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [ ]Rijndam Rehabilitation, Dordrecht, The Netherlands
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015


                Comment on this article