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      Short wheat challenge is a reproducible in-vivo assay to detect immune response to gluten.

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          Abstract

          It has been reported that interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting T cells reactive to gluten can be detected in the peripheral blood of individuals with treated coeliac disease (CD) after a short consumption of wheat-containing food. By contrast, very little is known about the reproducibility of this in-vivo procedure in the same patient cohort which underwent two, or more, gluten consumptions. Fourteen coeliac patients in remission consumed wheat bread for 3 days; 13 underwent a second gluten challenge after a wash-out of 3-10 months on a strict gluten-free diet. Immune reactivity to gluten was analysed in peripheral blood by detecting IFN-γ before and 6 days after commencing a gluten diet. Gliadin-specific IFN-γ-secreting CD4(+) T cells increased significantly on day 6 of the first challenge. These cells resulted as prevalently human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ restricted and with a phenotype of gut homing, as suggested by the expression of β7-integrin. Similarly, reactiveness to gliadin was observed after the second wheat consumption, although with an individual variability of responses at each challenge. Our findings confirmed that the short wheat challenge is a non-invasive approach to investigate the gluten-related immune response in peripheral blood of subjects intolerant to gluten. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the in-vivo procedure can be reproduced in the same subject cohort after a gluten wash-out of at least 3 months. Our study has important implications for the application of this procedure to clinical practice.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Clin. Exp. Immunol.
          Clinical and experimental immunology
          1365-2249
          0009-9104
          Aug 2012
          : 169
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Institute of Food Sciences-CNR, Avellino, Italy.
          Article
          10.1111/j.1365-2249.2012.04597.x
          22774987
          © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

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