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      Classification, imaging, biopsy and staging of osteosarcoma

      Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
      Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
      Osteosarcoma, imaging, biopsy, Enneking staging

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          Osteosarcoma is the most common primary osseous malignancy excluding malignant neoplasms of marrow origin (myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia) and accounts for approximately 20% of bone cancers. It predominantly affects patients younger than 20 years and mainly occurs in the long bones of the extremities, the most common being the metaphyseal area around the knee. These are classified as primary (central or surface) and secondary osteosarcomas arising in preexisting conditions. The conventional plain radiograph is the best for probable diagnosis as it describes features like sun burst appearance, Codman's triangle, new bone formation in soft tissues along with permeative pattern of destruction of the bone and other characteristics for specific subtypes of osteosarcomas. X-ray chest can detect metastasis in the lungs, but computerized tomography (CT) scan of the thorax is more helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lesion delineates its extent into the soft tissues, the medullary canal, the joint, skip lesions and the proximity of the tumor to the neurovascular structures. Tc99 bone scan detects the osseous metastases. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is used for metastatic workup and/or local recurrence after resection. The role of biochemical markers like alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase is pertinent for prognosis and treatment response. The biopsy confirms the diagnosis and reveals the grade of the tumor. Enneking system for staging malignant musculoskeletal tumors and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems are most commonly used for extremity sarcomas.

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          The hazards of the biopsy, revisited. Members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society.

          In 1982, members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, representing sixteen centers for the treatment of bone and soft-tissue cancer, compiled data regarding the hazards associated with 329 biopsies of primary malignant musculoskeletal sarcomas. The investigation showed troubling rates of error in diagnosis and technique, which resulted in complications and also adversely affected the care of the patients. These data were quite different when the biopsy had been carried out in a treatment center rather than in a referring institution. On the basis of these observations, the Society made a series of recommendations about the technical aspects of the biopsy and stated that, whenever possible, the procedure should be done in a treatment center rather than in a referring institution. In 1992, the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society decided to perform a similar study to determine whether the rates of complications, errors, and deleterious effects related to biopsy had changed. Twenty-five surgeons from twenty-one institutions submitted the cases of 597 patients. The results were essentially the same as those in the earlier study. The rate of diagnostic error for the total series (in which cases from referring institutions and treatment centers were combined) was 17.8 percent. There was no significant difference in the rate of patients for whom a problem with the biopsy forced the surgeon to carry out a different and often more complex operation or to use adjunctive irradiation or chemotherapy (19.3 percent in the current study, compared with 18 percent in the previous one). There was also no significant differences in the percentage of patients who had a change in the outcome, such as the need for a more complex resection that resulted in disability, loss of function, local recurrence, or death, attributable to problems related to the biopsy (10.1 percent in the current study, compared with 8.5 percent in the 1982 study). Eighteen patients in the current study had an unnecessary amputation as a result of the biopsy, compared with fifteen in the previous study. Errors, complications, and changes in the course and outcome were two to twelve times greater (p < 0.001) when the biopsy was done in a referring institution instead of in a treatment center.
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            The hazards of biopsy in patients with malignant primary bone and soft-tissue tumors.

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              Accurate diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions by core needle biopsy.

              Percutaneous needle biopsy has many advantages over open biopsy in the treatment of neoplasms. However, the accuracy of needle biopsy in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions has not yet been established. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and limitations of the procedure for musculoskeletal lesions. The diagnoses of 163 needle biopsies (bone, 91; soft tissue, 72) performed on 157 consecutive patients using a Jamshidi needle or an Ostycut needle for bone lesions, or a Tru-cut needle for soft tissue lesions were compared with the final diagnoses made by open biopsy and/or a definitive operation. One hundred forty-three specimens (88%) were determined to be adequate for histological examination. Obtaining undamaged cores from very hard bony lesions or sclerotic cyst walls proved difficult. A pathologist with experience in musculoskeletal lesions was able to differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions in 97% of the cases (bone, 100%; soft tissue, 94%) and arrive at a specific diagnosis in 88% (bone, 96%; soft tissue, 78%) when adequate cores were obtained. Differentiating a well-differentiated liposarcoma from a benign lipoma and inflammatory lesions from benign tumorous conditions, was difficult. The overall accuracy was 77% (bone, 85%; soft tissue, 68%). There was no morbidity related to the procedure. The results indicate that needle biopsy is safe and accurate for diagnosing musculoskeletal lesions. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Orthop
                Indian J Orthop
                Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                May-Jun 2014
                : 48
                : 3
                : 238-246
                [1]Department of Orthopaedics, Pt B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Prof. Zile Singh Kundu, 1393, Sector-3, Rohtak, Haryana - 124 001, India. E-mail: zskundu2003@ 123456rediffmail.com
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Orthopaedics

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Symposium - Osteosarcoma

                osteosarcoma,imaging,biopsy,enneking staging
                osteosarcoma, imaging, biopsy, enneking staging


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