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      Human Bocavirus Infection, Canada


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          Human Bocavirus was detected in 18 (1.5%) of 1,209 respiratory specimens collected in 2003 and 2004 in Canada. The main symptoms of affected patients were cough (78%), fever (67%), and sore throat (44%). Nine patients were hospitalized; of these, 8 (89%) were <5 years of age.

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          Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples.

          The identification of new virus species is a key issue for the study of infectious disease but is technically very difficult. We developed a system for large-scale molecular virus screening of clinical samples based on host DNA depletion, random PCR amplification, large-scale sequencing, and bioinformatics. The technology was applied to pooled human respiratory tract samples. The first experiments detected seven human virus species without the use of any specific reagent. Among the detected viruses were one coronavirus and one parvovirus, both of which were at that time uncharacterized. The parvovirus, provisionally named human bocavirus, was in a retrospective clinical study detected in 17 additional patients and associated with lower respiratory tract infections in children. The molecular virus screening procedure provides a general culture-independent solution to the problem of detecting unknown virus species in single or pooled samples. We suggest that a systematic exploration of the viruses that infect humans, "the human virome," can be initiated.
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            Human Coronavirus NL63 Infection and Other Coronavirus Infections in Children Hospitalized with Acute Respiratory Disease in Hong Kong, China

            Abstract Background. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a recently discovered human coronavirus found to cause respiratory illness in children and adults that is distinct from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and human coronaviruses 229E (HCoV-229E) and OC43 (HCoV-OC43). Methods. We investigated the role that HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E played in children hospitalized with fever and acute respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong during the period from August 2001 through August 2002. Results. Coronavirus infections were detected in 26 (4.4%) of 587 children studied; 15 (2.6%) were positive for HCoV-NL63, 9 (1.5%) were positive for HCoV-OC43, and 2 (0.3%) were positive for HCoV-229E. In addition to causing upper respiratory disease, we found that HCoV-NL63 can present as croup, asthma exacerbation, febrile seizures, and high fever. The mean age (± standard deviation [SD]) of the infected children was 30.7 ± 19.8 months (range, 6–57 months). The mean maximum temperature (±SD) for the 12 children who were febrile was 39.3°C ± 0.9°C, and the mean total duration of fever (±SD) for all children was 2.6 ± 1.2 days (range, 1–5 days). HCoV-NL63 infections were noted in the spring and summer months of 2002, whereas HCoV-OC43 infection mainly occurred in the fall and winter months of 2001. HCoV-NL63 viruses appeared to cluster into 2 evolutionary lineages, and viruses from both lineages cocirculated in the same season. Conclusions. HCoV-NL63 is a significant pathogen that contributes to the hospitalization of children, and it was estimated to have caused 224 hospital admissions per 100,000 population aged ⩽6 years each year in Hong Kong.
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              Impact of respiratory virus infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions.

              While hospitalization rates have declined overall, hospitalizations for acute lower respiratory tract infections have increased steadily since 1980. Development of new approaches for prevention of acute respiratory tract conditions requires studies of the etiologies of infections and quantification of the risk of hospitalization for vulnerable patients. To determine the frequency of specific virus infections associated with acute respiratory tract conditions leading to hospitalization of chronically ill patients. Analysis of viral etiology of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory tract conditions between July 1991 and June 1995. Four large clinics and related hospitals serving diverse populations representative of Harris County, Texas. A total of 1029 patients who were hospitalized for pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, croup, exacerbations of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or congestive heart failure. Virus infection, defined by culture, antigen detection, and significant rise in serum antibodies, by underlying condition; hospitalization rates by low- vs middle-income status. Ninety-three percent of patients older than 5 years had a chronic underlying condition; a chronic pulmonary condition was most common. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease from low-income populations were hospitalized at a rate of 398.6 per 10000, almost 8 times higher than the rate for patients from middle-income groups (52.2 per 10000; P<.001). Of the 403 patients (44.4% of adults and 32.3% of children) who submitted convalescent serum specimens for antibody testing, respiratory tract virus infections were detected in 181 (44.9%). Influenza, parainfluenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections accounted for 75% of all virus infections. Our study suggests that respiratory virus infections commonly trigger serious acute respiratory conditions that result in hospitalization of patients with chronic underlying conditions, highlighting the need for development of effective vaccines for these viruses, especially for parainfluenza and RSV.

                Author and article information

                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                May 2006
                : 12
                : 5
                : 848-850
                [* ]National Science Center for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada;
                []Saskatchewan Health, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Yan Li, National Microbiology Laboratory, Canadian Science Center for Human and Animal Health, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada; email: yan_li@ 123456phac-aspc.gc.ca

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                dispatch,parvoviruses,hbov,bocavirus,respiratory infection
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                dispatch, parvoviruses, hbov, bocavirus, respiratory infection


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