Objective To understand the sanitation status of teaching environment of schools in Beijing, and to provide basis for school environmental improvement through monitoring it.
Methods In 2019, 661 primary and secondary schools were selected according to the coverage rate of 50% of all schools. Two classrooms were randomly selected from each school for testing, 1 322 classrooms were monitored. The testing contents included per capita area of the classroom, rate of correct desks-chairs adjusting for school height, blackboard size, reflection ratio of blackboard, illumination, carbon dioxide and noise.
Results The qualified rate of noise (92.3%), per capita area (86.5%), blackboard size (85.6%) and illumination uniformity of table top (83.4%) were higher than 80%, while the qualified rate of other indexes were lower than 80%. In 2019, the qualified rate of blackboard size, blackboard average illuminance and blackboard illuminance uniformity were higher than 2018 year (85.6%, 52.7%, 36.2%; 81.9%, 42.7%, 31.7%)(χ 2 = 10.97, 7.80, 5.90, P<0.05), while the noise (92.3%) was lower than 2018 year (98.3%) (χ 2 = 70.82, P<0.05). Both classroom and blackboard, the average illuminance and evenness of the desk and blackboard installed with LED light were higher than those installed with fluorescent lights.
Conclusion Teaching environment monitoring in Beijing is not optimistic. It is necessary to strengthen the promotion and evaluation of standards, and the classroom environment needs to be further improved.
【摘要】 目的 了解北京市学校教学环境卫生现状, 为进一步改善教学卫生状况提供依据。 方法 2019年在北京市 按50%的覆盖率监测661所中小学校, 每所学校随机抽取2间教室, 共监测1 322间教室, 检测内容包括教室人均面积、课 桌椅分配符合率、黑板尺寸、黑板反射比、课桌面平均照度和均匀度、黑板平均照度和均匀度^02、噪声。 结果 监测教室 噪声、教室人均面积、黑板尺寸、课桌面照度均匀度4项指标合格率分别为92. 3%, 86. 5%, 85. 6%, 83. 4%, 其他指标合格率 均低于80%。2019年黑板尺寸、黑板平均照度、黑板照度均匀度合格率较2018年(85.6%, 52.7%, 36.2%;81.9%, 42.7%, 31.7%)有所提高(χ 2值分别为10. 97, 7. 80, 5. 90, P值均<0. 05), 而噪声合格率(92. 3%)较2018年(98.3%)有所下降(χ 2 = 70. 82, P<0. 05)。无论是教室还是黑板, 安装LED灯的课桌面、黑板平均照度和均匀度均值高于荧光灯。 结论 北京市 教学环境监测现状总体不容乐观, 需继续加强标准宣贯评价, 教室环境有待进一步改善。