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      The Role of Gelatinases in Campylobacter Jejuni Infection of Gnotobiotic Mice

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          Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 (also referred to gelatinases-A and -B, respectively) are upregulated in the inflamed gut of mice and men. We recently demonstrated that synthetic gelatinase blockage reduced large intestinal pro-inflammatory immune responses and apoptosis following murine Campylobacter (C.) jejuni infection. In order to address which gelatinase mediates C. jejuni-induced immune responses, gnotobiotic MMP-2 –/–, MMP-9 –/–, and wildtype (WT) mice were generated by broadspectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with C. jejuni strain 81-176. The pathogen stably colonized the murine intestinal tract irrespective of the genotype but did not translocate to extra-intestinal compartments. At days 8 and 14 postinfection (p.i.), less pronounced colonic histopathological changes were observed in infected MMP-2 –/– mice, less distinct epithelial apoptosis, but more epithelial proliferation in both MMP-2 –/– and MMP-9 –/– mice, as compared to WT controls. Reduced immune responses in gelatinase-deficient mice were characterized by lower numbers of effector as well as innate and adaptive immune cells within the colonic mucosa and lamina propria. The expression of IL-22, IL-18, IL-17A, and IL-1β mRNA was higher in the colon of MMP-2 –/– as compared to WT mice. In conclusion, both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are differentially involved in mediating C. jejuni-induced intestinal immunopathology.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications.

          Tumor progression is a complex, multistage process by which a normal cell undergoes genetic changes that result in phenotypic alterations and the acquisition of the ability to spread and colonize distant sites in the body. Although many factors regulate malignant tumor growth and spread, interactions between a tumor and its surrounding microenvironment result in the production of important protein products that are crucial to each step of tumor progression. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of degradative enzymes with clear links to malignancy. These enzymes are associated with tumor cell invasion of the basement membrane and stroma, blood vessel penetration, and metastasis. They have more recently been implicated in primary and metastatic tumor growth and angiogenesis, and they may even have a role in tumor promotion. This review outlines our current understanding of the MMP family, including the association of particular MMPs with malignant phenotypes and the role of MMPs in specific steps of the metastatic cascade. As scientific understanding of the MMPs has advanced, therapeutic strategies that capitalize on blocking the enzymes have rapidly developed. The preclinical and clinical evolution of the synthetic MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) is also examined, with the discussion encompassing important methodologic issues associated with determining clinical efficacy of MMPIs and other novel therapeutic agents.
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            Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis.

            Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that is common in the developed world. However, we know less about its biology and pathogenicity than we do about other less prevalent pathogens. Interest in C. jejuni has increased in recent years as a result of the growing appreciation of its importance as a pathogen and the availability of new model systems and genetic and genomic technologies. C. jejuni establishes persistent, benign infections in chickens and is rapidly cleared by many strains of laboratory mouse, but causes significant inflammation and enteritis in humans. Comparing the different host responses to C. jejuni colonization should increase our understanding of this organism.
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              Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

              Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial translocation. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. accumulated in inflamed ileum at high concentrations. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole ameliorated ileal immunopathology and reduced intestinal NO and IFN-gamma levels. Most strikingly, gnotobiotic mice in which cultivable gut bacteria were removed by quintuple antibiotic treatment did not develop ileitis after Toxoplasma gondii infection. A reduction in total numbers of lymphocytes was observed in the lamina propria of specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not gnotobiotic, mice upon development of ileitis. Relative numbers of CD4(+) T cells did not differ in naive vs infected gnotobiotic or SPF mice, but infected SPF mice showed a significant increase in the frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells compared with gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, recolonization with total gut flora, E. coli, or Bacteroides/Prevotella spp., but not Lactobacillus johnsonii, induced immunopathology in gnotobiotic mice. Animals recolonized with E. coli and/or total gut flora, but not L. johnsonii, showed elevated ileal NO and/or IFN-gamma levels. In conclusion, Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., E. coli, aggravate pathogen-induced intestinal Th1-type immunopathology. Thus, pathogen-induced acute ileitis may prove useful to study bacteria-host interactions in small intestinal inflammation and to test novel therapies based on modulation of gut flora.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                21 October 2015
                December 2015
                : 5
                : 4
                : 256-267
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                [2 ] Department of Medicine I for Gastroenterology, Infectious Disease and Rheumatology/Research Center ImmunoSciences (RCIS), Charité – University Medicine Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Charité – University Medicine Berlin, CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, FEM, Garystr. 5, D-14195 Berlin, Germany; +49-30-450524318; markus.heimesaat@

                Financial Disclosure, Grant Support

                This work was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG) to A.F., S.B., and U.B.G. (SFB633, TP A7); A.A.K. (SFB633, TP Z1); M.M.H. and U.H. (SFB633, TP B6); A.E.K. and U.G. (SFB633, Immuco), and from the German Federal Ministery of Education and Research (BMBF) to S.B. (TP1.1).

                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the article.

                Competing Interests

                The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 12
                Original Article


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