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      Prevalence of feline coronavirus types I and II in cats with histopathologically verified feline infectious peritonitis

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          Abstract

          Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) vary widely in virulence causing a spectrum of clinical manifestations reaching from subclinical course to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Independent of virulence variations they are separated into two different types, type I, the original FCoV, and type II, which is closely related to canine coronavirus (CCV). The prevalence of FCoV types in Austrian cat populations without FIP has been surveyed recently indicating that type I infections predominate. The distribution of FCoV types in cats, which had succumbed to FIP, however, was fairly unknown. PCR assays have been developed amplifying parts of the spike protein gene. Type-specific primer pairs were designed, generating PCR products of different sizes. A total of 94 organ pools of cats with histopathologically verified FIP was tested. A clear differentiation was achieved in 74 cats, 86% of them were type I positive, 7% type II positive, and 7% were positive for both types. These findings demonstrate that in FIP cases FCoV type I predominates, too, nonetheless, in 14% of the cases FCoV type II was detected, suggesting its causative involvement in cases of FIP.

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          The biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses.

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            Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis among cats in multiple-cat environments with endemic feline enteric coronavirus.

            To determine what risk factors, other than genetic predisposition, contribute to the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in private breeding catteries and animal shelters. Cats from 7 catteries and a shelter were observed monthly for 1 year. At each visit, cats were examined, fecal samples were collected for determination of feline coronavirus shedding, and blood samples were collected for determination of coronavirus antibody titers. Diagnostic tests were performed on all cats that died of FIP. 275 purebred or random-bred cats that were kept by private breeder-owners in homes. 24 cats died of FIP during the study. Development of FIP was not associated with cattery, mean cat number, mean age, sex, cattery median coronavirus antibody titer, husbandry and quarantine practices, caging and breeding practices, or prevalence of concurrent diseases. However, risk factors for FIP included individual cat age individual cat coronavirus titer, overall frequency of fecal coronarvirus shedding, and the proportion of cats in the cattery that were chronic coronavirus shedders. Deaths from FIP were more frequent in fall and winter, and on the basis of analysis of cattery records, the number of deaths varied yearly. Epidemics (> 10% mortality rate) were reported at least once in 5 years in 4 catteries. Elimination of FIP from a cattery is only possible by total elimination of endemic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. The most important procedure to reduce FECV from catteries is elimination of chronic FECV shedders.
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              Virologic and immunologic aspects of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

              A number of feline coronavirus isolates have been characterized over the last few years. These isolates consist of what we have referred to as feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs). FECVs cause a transient enteritis in kittens but no systemic illness. FIPVs, in contrast, cause a systemic and usually fatal disease syndrome characterized either by an exudative serositis or a disseminated granulomatous disease. Although the diseases they cause are quite different, FECVs and FIPVs are antigenically and morphologically indistinguishable from each other. FECVs have a strict tropism for mature intestinal epithelial cells and do not appear to replicate in macrophages. In contrast, FIPVs, appear to spread rapidly from the intestinal mucosa and replicate in macrophages. Experiments will be presented, and literature cited, that will allow us to make the following assumptions about the pathogenesis of FIPV infection: 1) FIPVs and FECVs represent a spectrum of viruses that differ only in infectivity (ability to evoke seroconversion following oral infection) and virulence (ability to cause FIP), 2) field isolates are generally nearer to FECVs in behavior than laboratory isolates made from animal passaged material, 3) immunity to FIPV appears to be of the premunition type and is maintained for as long as the infection persists in a reactivatable form, 4) strains of feline coronaviruses that do not cause systemic disease, such as FECVs or low virulence FIPVs, can actually sensitize cats to infection with virulent FIPV strains, 5) FeLV infection interferes with established FIP immunity and allows for the reactivation of disease in healthy carriers, 6) FIPV may be passaged from queen to kitten either in utero or during neonatal life, and 7) kittens infected by their mothers with FIPV do not usually develop FIP but become immune carriers of the virus for a period of 5-6 months; recovery from the carrier state is associated with a loss of premunition immunity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Vet Microbiol
                Vet. Microbiol
                Veterinary Microbiology
                Elsevier B.V.
                0378-1135
                1873-2542
                7 February 2004
                26 March 2004
                7 February 2004
                : 99
                : 1
                : 31-42
                Affiliations
                [a ]Clinical Virology Group, Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
                [b ]Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
                [c ]Institute of Medical Physics and Biostatistics, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
                [d ]Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +43-1-25077-2702; fax: +43-1-25077-2790. karin.moestl@ 123456vu-wien.ac.at
                Article
                S0378-1135(03)00382-1
                10.1016/j.vetmic.2003.07.010
                7117137
                15019109
                d9bacc97-62f8-42f4-9cd4-51596421e1de
                Copyright © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 3 December 2002
                : 1 July 2003
                : 21 July 2003
                Categories
                Article

                Veterinary medicine
                feline coronavirus (fcov),feline infectious peritonitis (fip),rt-pcr,paraffin embedded tissues (pet),types i and ii

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