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      Prelacteal feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months in Raya Kobo district, North Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The harmful infant feeding practices of prelacteal feeding is widely practiced in Ethiopia. Hence, it is vital to appreciate the cultural basis and potential factors on infant feeding practices in different parts of Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate prelacteal feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months in Raya Kobo district, North Eastern Ethiopia.

          Methods

          A quantitative community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative methods was employed. Sixty hundred thirty (630) mothers of children aged less than 24 months were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were employed to identify the factors associated with prelacteal feeding practices. Variables with a p-value < 0.05 were identified as statistically significant factors. Qualitative data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth interview and analyzed using thematic frameworks.

          Results

          The prevalence of prelacteal feeding was 38.8% (95% CI: 35.00%, 43.00%). Home delivery was a risk factor for practicing prelacteal feeding. Those mothers who gave birth at home were seven times more likely to practice prelacteal feeding as compared to mothers who delivered at health institutions (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR):7.10; 95% CI: 3.91, 12.98). Mothers who were not aware of the risks associated with prelacteal feeding were nearly four times more likely to practice prelacteal feeding as compared to knowledgeable mothers (AOR: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.44, 5.53). Late initiation of breastfeeding (after one hour of delivery) was also associated with prelacteal feeding practice (AOR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.99). The major reasons stated for providing prelacteal feeding were to prevent “evil eye” and illness and to “clean infant’s stomach”.

          Conclusion

          Prelacteal feeding was commonly practiced in Raya Kobo district. Home delivery, delayed commencement of breastfeeding after birth and lack of awareness about the risks associated with prelacteal feeding were predictors of prelacteal feeding. Therefore, strengthening infant feeding counseling about the risks associated with prelacteal feeding, promoting institutional delivery and timely initiation of breastfeeding are important measures for preventing prelacteal feeding in Raya Kobo district.

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          Most cited references31

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          Global Health Risks Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk

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            Prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices and associated factors among mothers in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

            Background Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. World Health Organization (WHO) recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months which has a great contribution in reducing under five mortality, which otherwise leads to death of 88/1000 live birth yearly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess prevalence of EBF and associated factors in mothers in the city of Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 to 25 June 2012 among mothers who delivered 12 months earlier in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. A cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 819 participants. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding. Results Of 819 mother-infant pairs sampled, the overall age appropriate rate of EBF practice was found to be 50.3%. Having a young infant aged 0-1 month (AOR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.54, 9.24) and 2-3 months (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.71, 4.58), being a housewife (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.48, 3.16), having prenatal EBF plan (AOR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.21, 6.37), delivering at a health facility (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.55, 5.89), giving birth vaginally (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.87) and receiving infant feeding counseling/advice (AOR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.13, 12.68) were found to be significantly associated with EBF practice. Conclusion Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was low in Bahir Dar. Strengthening infant feeding advice/counseling both at the community and institutional levels, promoting institutional delivery, providing adequate pain relief and early assistance for mothers who gave birth by caesarean section, and enabling every mother a prenatal EBF plan during antenatal care were recommended in order to increase the proportion of women practicing EBF.
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              Prelacteal feeding practices in Vietnam: challenges and associated factors

              Background Despite the importance of early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding, prelacteal feeds continue to pose a barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices in several countries, including Vietnam. This study examined the factors associated with prelacteal feeding among Vietnamese mothers. Methods Data from 6068 mother-child (<6 m) dyads were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 11 provinces in Vietnam in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with prelacteal feeding. Results During the first three days after birth, 73.3% of the newborns were fed prelacteals, 53.5% were fed infants formula, and 44.1% were fed water. The odds of feeding prelacteals declined with increased breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs about social norms in favor of exclusive breastfeeding, and confidence in one’s own breastfeeding behaviors. Women who harbored misconceptions about breastfeeding had twice the odds of feeding any prelacteals (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.74–2.50). Health care factors increasing the odds of prelacteal feeding included delivery by caesarean section (OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 2.39–3.61) or episiotomy (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.17–1.58) and experiencing breastfeeding problems (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). Health staff support during pregnancy and after birth reduced the odds of feeding formula. However, family support after delivery increased the odds of feeding water to newborns. Conclusions The multiple factors contributing to the high prevalence of prelacteal feeding behaviors stress the need for early and appropriate breastfeeding interventions in Vietnam, particularly during routine healthcare contacts. Improving breastfeeding practices during the first days of an infant’s life could be achieved by improving knowledge and confidence of mothers through appropriate perinatal counseling and support. Ensuring that health facilities integrate these practices into routine ante-natal care and post-delivery management is critical.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lmisgan@yahoo.com
                melakedemena@yahoo.com
                mfirehiwotm@gmail.com
                demewozhaile@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Int Breastfeed J
                Int Breastfeed J
                International Breastfeeding Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1746-4358
                14 December 2014
                14 December 2014
                2014
                : 9
                : 1
                : 189
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
                [ ]Department of Public Health, College of Health Science and Medicine, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
                [ ]Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia
                Article
                25
                10.1186/s13006-014-0025-2
                4308855
                25648571
                d9c524ce-e58a-483b-ad3d-a64562ad2cdc
                © Legesse et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 9 August 2014
                : 7 December 2014
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                prelacteal,children aged less than 24 months,ethiopia
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                prelacteal, children aged less than 24 months, ethiopia

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