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      Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

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          Abstract

          Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, β -sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

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          Most cited references54

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          Role of inflammation in atherosclerosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

          Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction and allied disorders. A large body of evidence supports the involvement of common proinflammatory cytokines in the development and progression of both RA and atherosclerosis. The destructive proinflammatory cascade and effector mechanisms implicated in RA resemble the chronic inflammatory processes that drive the development of atherosclerosis in general. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha produced within locally affected joints in RA may promote both traditional (e.g., dyslipidemia, insulin resistance) and nontraditional (e.g., oxidative stress) systemic cardiovascular risk factors. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators influences all stages of atherosclerosis development, from early atheroma formation to thrombus development responsible for events such as myocardial infarction. Appreciation of the inflammatory process shared by RA and atherosclerosis should heighten the recognition of this morbid association and lead to better recognition and management of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatologic diseases.
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            Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group.

            Androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss) is caused by androgen-dependent miniaturization of scalp hair follicles, with scalp dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implicated as a contributing cause. Finasteride, an inhibitor of type II 5alpha-reductase, decreases serum and scalp DHT by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to DHT. Our purpose was to determine whether finasteride treatment leads to clinical improvement in men with male pattern hair loss. In two 1-year trials, 1553 men (18 to 41 years of age) with male pattern hair loss received oral finasteride 1 mg/d or placebo, and 1215 men continued in blinded extension studies for a second year. Efficacy was evaluated by scalp hair counts, patient and investigator assessments, and review of photographs by an expert panel. Finasteride treatment improved scalp hair by all evaluation techniques at 1 and 2 years (P < .001 vs placebo, all comparisons). Clinically significant increases in hair count (baseline = 876 hairs), measured in a 1-inch diameter circular area (5.1 cm2) of balding vertex scalp, were observed with finasteride treatment (107 and 138 hairs vs placebo at 1 and 2 years, respectively; P < .001). Treatment with placebo resulted in progressive hair loss. Patients' self-assessment demonstrated that finasteride treatment slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance of hair. These improvements were corroborated by investigator assessments and assessments of photographs. Adverse effects were minimal. In men with male pattern hair loss, finasteride 1 mg/d slowed the progression of hair loss and increased hair growth in clinical trials over 2 years.
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              Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2011
                8 June 2011
                8 June 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1State University of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY, USA
                2Advanced Restoration Technologies, Inc., 9035 North 15th Place, Phoenix, AZ 85020, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                nep102
                10.1093/ecam/nep102
                3137880
                19692448
                d9d05a64-fbb6-47e6-b741-b2d288e7f866
                Copyright © 2011 Sridar Chittur et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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