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      Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children: a review of 42 cases

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          This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, radiological features and outcomes of 42 children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO).


          Forty-two children diagnosed with PIBO were prospectively studied at the First Hospital of Jilin University in northern China between January, 2008 and January, 2013. Their clinical characteristics, lung high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings and pulmonary function tests were reported.


          In children with PIBO, adenovirus was the most common etiologic agent (21/42), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). All of the patients presented with repeated wheezing and tachypnea. In addition, 22 patients required intensive management, while six patients required home oxygen therapy. HRCT findings were consistent with the PIBO diagnosis in all of the patients. Pulmonary function testing was useful in evaluating therapeutic responses. Systemic steroids combined with azithromycin were effective for PIBO treatment.


          Severe adenovirus bronchiolitis and M. pneumoniae infections have a higher risk of development for PIBO. HRCT and pulmonary function testing are useful in the diagnosis of PIBO. The degree of airway obstruction did not differ significantly between adenovirus and M. pneumoniae. A combination of steroids and azithromycin offers some benefit in treating these patients.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Azithromycin reduces airway neutrophilia and interleukin-8 in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

          Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the leading cause of death after lung transplantation. Treatment is difficult, although azithromycin has recently been shown to improve FEV(1). The exact mechanism of action is unclear. (1) Azithromycin reduces airway neutrophilia and interleukin (IL)-8 and (2) airway neutrophilia predicts the improvement in FEV(1). Fourteen lung transplant patients with BOS (between BOS 0-p and BOS 3) were treated with azithromycin, in addition to their current immunosuppressive treatment. Before and 3 mo after azithromycin was introduced, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for cell differentiation and to measure IL-8 and IL-17 mRNA ratios. The FEV(1) increased from 2.36 (+/- 0.82 L) to 2.67 L (+/- 0.85 L; p = 0.007), whereas the percentage of BAL neutrophilia decreased from 35.1 (+/- 35.7%) to 5.7% (+/- 6.5%; p = 0.0024). There were six responders to azithromycin (with an FEV(1) increase of > 10%) and eight nonresponders. Using categorical univariate linear regression analysis, the main significant differences in characteristics between responders and nonresponders were the initial BAL neutrophilia (p < 0.0001), IL-8 mRNA ratio (p = 0.0009), and the postoperative day at which azithromycin was started (p = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between the initial percentage of BAL neutrophilia and the changes in FEV(1) after 3 mo (r = 0.79, p = 0.0019). Azithromycin significantly reduces airway neutrophilia and IL-8 mRNA in patients with BOS. Responders have a significantly higher BAL neutrophilia and IL-8 compared with nonresponders and had commenced treatment earlier after transplantation. BAL neutrophilia can be used as a predictor for the FEV(1) response to azithromycin.
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            Adenovirus pneumonia in infants and factors for developing bronchiolitis obliterans: a 5-year follow-up.

            To describe clinical, pulmonary function, and chest tomography profiles in a 5-year follow-up of infants with adenovirus pneumonia and determine the factors that potentially contributed to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We prospectively assessed 45 hospitalized infants with adenovirus pneumonia with additional follow-up for 5 years. At the end of the study, pulmonary function by impulse oscillometry technique (IOS) and chest tomography were performed in the 38 surviving patients (mean 5.7 years of age). We divided the population between those who developed chest tomography evidence of BO and those who did not. Most of the children developed adenovirus infection before 2 years of age. During the 5 years of follow-up, almost half (47.4%) developed BO. Children who developed BO had significantly more respiratory compromise (intensive care admission, need for mechanical ventilation and for oxygen therapy, and systemic corticosteroid and beta agonist use) during their adenovirus pneumonia episode than those who did not develop BO. Only 33.3% of children with BO had normal impedance compared with 85% in the no BO group. Children who developed BO had significantly higher levels of Zrs, R5, X5 and predicted Zrs, R5, and X5 and frequency. However, there were no differences in the beta 2 agonist response between the children with and without BO (94% vs. 80%, respectively). This study represents the spectra of adenovirus pneumonia ranging from relatively mild to severe and fatal cases. Children with severe pulmonary compromise are usually more prone to develop BO. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Maintenance azithromycin therapy for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome: results of a pilot study.

              Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pulmonary transplant population. Previous studies show that macrolide antibiotics may be efficacious in the treatment of panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. In the latter, azithromycin decreases the number of respiratory exacerbations, improves FEV1, and improves quality of life. We hypothesized that oral azithromycin therapy may improve lung function in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an open-label pilot trial using maintenance azithromycin therapy in six lung transplant recipients (250 mg orally three times per week for a mean of 13.7 weeks). In this study, five of these six individuals demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary function, as assessed by FEV1, as compared with their baseline values at the start of azithromycin therapy. The mean increase in the percentage of predicted FEV1 values in these individuals was 17.1% (p

                Author and article information

                BMC Pediatr
                BMC Pediatr
                BMC Pediatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                25 September 2014
                25 September 2014
                : 14
                : 1
                [ ]Department of Pediatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 PR China
                [ ]Institute of Pediatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 PR China
                © Li et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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