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      Bee Bread Can Alleviate Lipid Abnormalities and Impaired Bone Morphology in Obese Zucker Diabetic Rats

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          Abstract

          This study examined for the first time whether bee bread (BB, consisting of monofloral rape bee pollen) could alleviate lipid derangements and reduced bone quality in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, which are considered an appropriate animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) investigation. Adult ZDF rats were segregated into four groups: lean non-diabetic rats (L group), obese diabetic rats untreated (C group), and those treated with the BB at two doses (500 and 700 mg/kg body weight, respectively, B1 and B2 groups) for 10 weeks. Significantly reduced levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were recorded in the B2 group versus the C group. In both BB-treated groups, significantly increased relative volume of trabecular bone and trabecular thickness, enhanced density of secondary osteons, accelerated periosteal bone apposition, and improved blood flow were observed. A positive effect of higher dose of BB on femoral weight and cortical bone thickness was also demonstrated. Our results suggest a promising potential of BB to ameliorate T2DM-related complications associated with lipid and bone damages.

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          Quercetin, a flavonoid antioxidant, prevents and protects streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and beta-cell damage in rat pancreas.

          The aim of the present study was the evaluation of possible protective effects of quercetin (QE) against beta-cell damage in experimental streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 50 mg kg(-1) for diabetes induction. QE (15 mg kg(-1) day, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection) was injected for 3 days prior to STZ administration; these injections were continued to the end of the study (for 4 weeks). It has been believed that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). In order to determine the changes of cellular antioxidant defense system, antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in pancreatic homogenates. Moreover we also measured serum nitric oxide (NO) and erythrocyte and pancreatic tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a marker of lipid peroxidation, if there is an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Pancreatic beta-cells were examined by immunohistochemical methods. STZ induced a significant increase lipid peroxidation, serum NO concentrations and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity. Erythrocyte MDA, serum NO and pancreatic tissue MDA significantly increased (P < 0.05) and also the antioxidant levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in diabetic group. QE treatment significantly decreased the elevated MDA and NO (P < 0.05), and also increased the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05). QE treatment has shown protective effect possibly through decreasing lipid peroxidation, NO production and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. Islet cells degeneration and weak insulin immunohistochemical staining was observed in STZ induced diabetic rats. Increased staining of insulin and preservation of islet cells were apparent in the QE-treated diabetic rats. These findings suggest that QE treatment has protective effect in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell integrity.
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            The role of vasculature in bone development, regeneration and proper systemic functioning

            Bone is a richly vascularized connective tissue. As the main source of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors delivered to the bone cells, vasculature is indispensable for appropriate bone development, regeneration and remodeling. Bone vasculature also orchestrates the process of hematopoiesis. Blood supply to the skeletal system is provided by the networks of arteries and arterioles, having distinct molecular characteristics and localizations within the bone structures. Blood vessels of the bone develop through the process of angiogenesis, taking place through different, bone-specific mechanisms. Impaired functioning of the bone blood vessels may be associated with the occurrence of some skeletal and systemic diseases, i.e., osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis or diabetes mellitus. When a disease or trauma-related large bone defects appear, bone grafting or bone tissue engineering-based strategies are required. However, a successful bone regeneration in both approaches largely depends on a proper blood supply. In this paper, we review the most recent data on the functions, molecular characteristics and significance of the bone blood vessels, with a particular emphasis on the role of angiogenesis and blood vessel functioning in bone development and regeneration, as well as the consequences of its impairment in the course of different skeletal and systemic diseases.
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              Current views on type 2 diabetes.

              Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects a large population worldwide. T2DM is a complex heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and impaired insulin action and/or insulin secretion. T2DM causes dysfunctions in multiple organs or tissues. Current theories of T2DM include a defect in insulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle, a dysfunction of the pancreatic beta-cells, a disruption of secretory function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in liver. The etiology of human T2DM is multifactorial, with genetic background and physical inactivity as two critical components. The pathogenesis of T2DM is not fully understood. Animal models of T2DM have been proved to be useful to study the pathogenesis of, and to find a new therapy for, the disease. Although different animal models share similar characteristics, each mimics a specific aspect of genetic, endocrine, metabolic, and morphologic changes that occur in human T2DM. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in T2DM and to summarize animal models for studying the pathogenesis of the disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                29 April 2021
                May 2021
                : 26
                : 9
                : 2616
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Zoology and Anthropology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia; vkovacova@ 123456ukf.sk
                [2 ]Department of Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia; jana.blahova@ 123456ukf.sk (J.B.); martina.babikova@ 123456ukf.sk (M.B.); vmondockova@ 123456ukf.sk (V.M.)
                [3 ]Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia; anna.kalafova@ 123456uniag.sk (A.K.); marcela.capcarova@ 123456uniag.sk (M.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mmartiniakova@ 123456ukf.sk (M.M.); romelka@ 123456ukf.sk (R.O.); Tel.: +421-376-408-737 (R.O.)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1889-026X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7186-4282
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6493-9880
                Article
                molecules-26-02616
                10.3390/molecules26092616
                8124454
                33947088
                d9eac1ea-b9ab-4c90-b075-b75af362b165
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 18 April 2021
                : 27 April 2021
                Categories
                Article

                bee bread,functional food,diabetes mellitus,lipid profile,bone morphology,zdf rat

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