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      Acute 5-HT 2C Receptor Antagonist SB-242084 Treatment Affects EEG Gamma Band Activity Similarly to Chronic Escitalopram


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          Serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT 2CRs) are implicated in the pathomechanism and treatment of anxiety and depression. Recently, as a new biomarker of depression, alterations in the gamma power of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been suggested. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant escitalopram has been shown to cause sleep-wake stage-dependent alterations in gamma power. However, despite the antidepressant potency of 5-HT 2CR-antagonists, there is no data available regarding the effects of selective 5-HT 2CR-antagonists on gamma activity. Therefore, we investigate the acute effect of the 5-HT 2CR-antagonist SB-242084 on gamma power in different vigilance stages when given in monotherapy, or in combination with chronic escitalopram treatment. We administered SB-242084 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle to EEG-equipped rats after a 21-day-long pretreatment with escitalopram (10 mg/kg/day, via osmotic minipumps) or vehicle. Frontoparietal EEG, electromyogram, and motor activity were recorded during the first 3 h of passive phase, after the administration of SB-242084. Quantitative EEG analysis revealed that acute SB-242084 increased gamma power (30–60 Hz) in light and deep slow-wave sleep, and passive wakefulness. However, in active wakefulness, rapid eye movement sleep, and intermediate stage, no change was observed in gamma power. The profile of the effect of SB-242084 on gamma power was similar to that produced by chronic escitalopram. Moreover, SB-242084 did not alter chronic escitalopram-induced effects on gamma. In conclusion, the similarity in the effect of the 5-HT 2CR-antagonist and chronic SSRI on gamma power provides further evidence for the therapeutic potential of 5-HT 2CR-antagonists in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety.

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          Mechanisms of gamma oscillations.

          Gamma rhythms are commonly observed in many brain regions during both waking and sleep states, yet their functions and mechanisms remain a matter of debate. Here we review the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma oscillations and outline empirical questions and controversial conceptual issues. Our main points are as follows: First, gamma-band rhythmogenesis is inextricably tied to perisomatic inhibition. Second, gamma oscillations are short-lived and typically emerge from the coordinated interaction of excitation and inhibition, which can be detected as local field potentials. Third, gamma rhythm typically concurs with irregular firing of single neurons, and the network frequency of gamma oscillations varies extensively depending on the underlying mechanism. To document gamma oscillations, efforts should be made to distinguish them from mere increases of gamma-band power and/or increased spiking activity. Fourth, the magnitude of gamma oscillation is modulated by slower rhythms. Such cross-frequency coupling may serve to couple active patches of cortical circuits. Because of their ubiquitous nature and strong correlation with the "operational modes" of local circuits, gamma oscillations continue to provide important clues about neuronal population dynamics in health and disease.
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            NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites

            Major depressive disorder afflicts ~16 percent of the world population at some point in their lives. Despite a number of available monoaminergic-based antidepressants, most patients require many weeks, if not months, to respond to these treatments, and many patients never attain sustained remission of their symptoms. The non-competitive glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine), exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant effects following a single dose in depressed patients. Here we show that the metabolism of ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and that the (2R,6R)-HNK enantiomer exerts behavioural, electroencephalographic, electrophysiological and cellular antidepressant actions in vivo. Notably, we demonstrate that these antidepressant actions are NMDAR inhibition-independent but they involve early and sustained α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor activation. We also establish that (2R,6R)-HNK lacks ketamine-related side-effects. Our results indicate a novel mechanism underlying ketamine’s unique antidepressant properties, which involves the required activity of a distinct metabolite and is independent of NMDAR inhibition. These findings have relevance for the development of next generation, rapid-acting antidepressants.
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              Serotonin control of sleep-wake behavior.

              Based on electrophysiological, neurochemical, genetic and neuropharmacological approaches, it is currently accepted that serotonin (5-HT) functions predominantly to promote wakefulness (W) and to inhibit REM (rapid eye movement) sleep (REMS). Yet, under certain circumstances the neurotransmitter contributes to the increase in sleep propensity. Most of the serotonergic innervation of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal forebrain (BFB), thalamus, preoptic and hypothalamic areas, raphe nuclei, locus coeruleus and pontine reticular formation comes from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The 5-HT receptors can be classified into at least seven classes, designated 5-HT(1-7). The 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptor subtypes are linked to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, and their activation evokes a membrane hyperpolarization. The actions of the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptor subtypes are mediated by the activation of phospholipase C, with a resulting depolarization of the host cell. The 5-HT(3) receptor directly activates a 5-HT-gated cation channel which leads to the depolarization of monoaminergic, aminoacidergic and cholinergic cells. The primary signal transduction pathway of 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors is the stimulation of adenylate cyclase which results in the depolarization of the follower neurons. Mutant mice that do not express 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptor exhibit greater amounts of REMS than their wild-type counterparts, which could be related to the absence of a postsynaptic inhibitory effect on REM-on neurons of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT/PPT). 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor knock-out mice show a significant increase of W and a reduction of slow wave sleep (SWS) which has been ascribed to the increase of catecholaminergic neurotransmission involving mainly the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Sleep variables have been characterized, in addition, in 5-HT(7) receptor knock-out mice; the mutants spend less time in REMS that their wild-type counterparts. Direct infusion of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan into the DRN significantly enhances REMS in the rat. In contrast, microinjection of the 5-HT(1B) (CP-94253), 5-HT(2A/2C) (DOI), 5-HT(3) (m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and 5-HT(7) (LP-44) receptor agonists into the DRN induces a significant reduction of REMS. Systemic injection of full agonists at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) (8-OH-DPAT, flesinoxan), 5-HT(1B) (CGS 12066B, CP-94235), 5-HT(2C) (RO 60-0175), 5-HT(2A/2C) (DOI, DOM), 5-HT(3) (m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and 5-HT(7) (LP-211) receptors increases W and reduces SWS and REMS. Of note, systemic administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonists ritanserin, ketanserin, ICI-170,809 or sertindole at the beginning of the light period has been shown to induce a significant increase of SWS and a reduction of REMS in the rat. Wakefulness was also diminished in most of these studies. Similar effects have been described following the injection of the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists volinanserin and pruvanserin and of the 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist nelotanserin in rodents. In addition, the effects of these compounds have been studied on the sleep electroencephalogram of subjects with normal sleep. Their administration was followed by an increase of SWS and, in most instances, a reduction of REMS. The administration of ritanserin to poor sleepers, patients with chronic primary insomnia and psychiatric patients with a generalized anxiety disorder or a mood disorder caused a significant increase in SWS. The 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist APD-125 induced also an increase of SWS in patients with chronic primary insomnia. It is known that during the administration of benzodiazepine (BZD) hypnotics to patients with insomnia there is a further reduction of SWS and REMS, whereas both variables tend to remain decreased during the use of non-BZD derivatives (zolpidem, zopiclone, eszopiclone, zaleplon). Thus, the association of 5-HT(2A) antagonists or 5-HT(2A) inverse agonists with BZD and non-BZD hypnotics could be a valid alternative to normalize SWS in patients with primary or comorbid insomnia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 January 2020
                : 10
                [1] 1 Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
                [2] 2 MTA-SE Neuropsychopharmacology and Neurochemistry Research Group , Budapest, Hungary
                [3] 3 Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge , Cambridge, United Kingdom
                [4] 4 NAP-2-SE New Antidepressant Target Research Group , Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes

                Edited by: Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Université de Bordeaux, France

                Reviewed by: Roberto Colangeli, University of Calgary, Canada; Kjartan Frisch Herrik, Lundbeck, Denmark

                *Correspondence: György Bagdy, bag13638@ 123456iif.hu

                This article was submitted to Neuropharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2020 Papp, Koncz, Kostyalik, Kitka, Petschner, Vas and Bagdy

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 9, Words: 4701
                Brief Research Report

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                serotonin,5-ht2c receptor,ssri antidepressant,gamma rhythm,electroencephalography,sleep-wake cycle,anxiety,depression


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