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Porphyrins in troubled times: a spotlight on porphyrins and their metal complexes for explosives testing and CBRN defense

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      Abstract

      A critical perspective on (metallo)porphyrins in security-related applications: the past, present and future of explosives detection, CBRN defense, and beyond.

      Abstract

      Porphyrins are large π-aromatic systems that can complex metal ions from all across the periodic table. The resulting metalloporphyrins are readily tunable with regards to analyte detection properties, and constitute an important class of chemical sensors. In light of the current geopolitical situation and security concerns, we review the potential of porphyrins and their metal complexes for the detection of explosives and their use in chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) defense and set them in the context of up-and-coming security-related applications.

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      Metal-organic framework materials as chemical sensors.

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        Biofilms--matrix-enclosed microbial accretions that adhere to biological or non-biological surfaces--represent a significant and incompletely understood mode of growth for bacteria. Biofilm formation appears early in the fossil record (approximately 3.25 billion years ago) and is common throughout a diverse range of organisms in both the Archaea and Bacteria lineages, including the 'living fossils' in the most deeply dividing branches of the phylogenetic tree. It is evident that biofilm formation is an ancient and integral component of the prokaryotic life cycle, and is a key factor for survival in diverse environments. Recent advances show that biofilms are structurally complex, dynamic systems with attributes of both primordial multicellular organisms and multifaceted ecosystems. Biofilm formation represents a protected mode of growth that allows cells to survive in hostile environments and also disperse to colonize new niches. The implications of these survival and propagative mechanisms in the context of both the natural environment and infectious diseases are discussed in this review.
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          Ebola haemorrhagic fever.

          Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Chemistry
            [2 ]SFI Tetrapyrrole Laboratory
            [3 ]Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute
            [4 ]Trinity College Dublin
            [5 ]The University of Dublin
            [6 ]Medicinal Chemistry
            [7 ]Trinity Translational Medicine Institute
            [8 ]Trinity Centre for Health Sciences
            Journal
            NJCHE5
            New Journal of Chemistry
            New J. Chem.
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            1144-0546
            1369-9261
            2018
            2018
            : 42
            : 10
            : 7529-7550
            10.1039/C7NJ04679K
            © 2018

            http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7NJ04679K

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