Background: A significant phenotypical variability is observed in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The variability can not be fully explained by the genetic heterogenity of the disease. We examined the influence of the ACE I/D polymorphism, adducin Trp460Gly polymorphism and the association of both polymorphisms on the progression of ADPKD towards end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Methods: 320 ADPKD patients (pts) were analyzed, 220 pts (113 males, 107 females) with ESRF before 63 years of age, with a subgroup (rapid progressors) of 20 pts (12 males, 8 females) with ESRF before 40 years of age, 52 pts (23 males, 29 females) with ESRF later than 63 years of age (slow progressors), 48 ADPKD pts (18 males, 30 females) with mean age ±50 years with serum creatinine <110 µmol/l (slow progressors) and 200 genetically unrelated healthy Czech subjects. DNA samples from collected blood were genotyped for the ACE I/D polymorphism and the Trp460Gly of α-adducin gene polymorphism. Results: The α-adducin genotypes showed no differences among the groups of slow progressors (74% Gly/Gly, 22.9% Gly/Trp and 3.1% Trp/Trp), pts with ESRF before 63 years of age (67.7% Gly/Gly, 30.5% Gly/Trp and 1.8% Trp/Trp) and rapid progressors (75% Gly/Gly, 25% Gly/Trp). The ACE genotypes did not differ among the groups of slow progressors (27.1% I/I, 44.8% I/D and 28.1% D/D), pts with ESRF before 63 years of age (23.6% I/I, 51.4% I/D and 25% D/D) and rapid progressors (20% I/I, 55% I/D and 25% D/D). The distribution did not differ from the control group. The ages of ESRF according to different genotypes did not significantly differ. We observed a significant tendency to better prognosis in Trp allele carriers for I/I genotype in comparison with Gly/Gly homozygous subjects. Conclusion: The ACE and α-adducin polymorphisms do not play a significant role in the progression of ADPKD to ESRF.