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      Characterization and Function of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase in Populus trichocarpa: Overexpression of PtHMGR Enhances Terpenoids in Transgenic Poplar

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          Abstract

          In the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is considered the first rate-limiting enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis. In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA from Populus trichocarpa with an open reading frame of 1,734 bp. The deduced PtHMGR sequence contained two HMG-CoA motifs and two NADPH motifs, which exhibited homology with HMGR proteins from other species. Subsequently, truncated PtHMGR was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells, and enzyme activity analysis revealed that the truncated PtHMGR protein could catalyze the reaction of HMG-CoA and NADPH to form MVA. Relative expression analysis suggests that PtHMGR expression varies among tissues and that PtHMGR responds significantly to abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl, PEG 6000, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), and cold stresses. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to select transgenic Nanlin 895 poplars ( Populus× euramericana cv.) and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to show that PtHMGR expression levels were 3- to 10-fold higher in transgenic lines than in wild-type (WT) poplars. qRT-PCR was also used to determine transcript levels of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP)-, MVA-, and downstream-related genes, indicating that overexpression of PtHMGR not only affects expression levels of MVA-related genes, but also those of MEP-related genes. We also measured the content of terpenoids including ABA, gibberellic acid (GA), carotenes, and lycopene. PtHMGR overexpression significantly increased ABA, GA, carotene, and lycopene content, indicating that PtHMGR participates in the regulation of terpenoid compound synthesis.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Abscisic Acid synthesis and response.

          Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the "classical" plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence.
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            1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, a limiting enzyme for plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants.

            The initial step of the plastidic 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway that produces isopentenyl diphosphate is catalyzed by 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase. To investigate whether or not 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase catalyzes a limiting step in the MEP pathway in plants, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants that over- or underexpress this enzyme. Compared with non-transgenic wild-type plants, the transgenic plants accumulate different levels of various isoprenoids such as chlorophylls, tocopherols, carotenoids, abscisic acid, and gibberellins. Phenotypically, the transgenic plants had slight alterations in growth and germination rates. Because the levels of several plastidic isoprenoids correlate with changes in 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase levels, we conclude that this enzyme catalyzes one of the rate-limiting steps of the MEP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, since the product of the MEP pathway is isopentenyl diphosphate, our results suggest that in plastids the pool of isopentenyl diphosphate is limiting to isprenoid production.
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              Biosynthesis of plant isoprenoids: perspectives for microbial engineering.

              Isoprenoids are a large and highly diverse group of natural products with many functions in plant primary and secondary metabolism. Isoprenoids are synthesized from common prenyl diphosphate precursors through the action of terpene synthases and terpene-modifying enzymes such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Many isoprenoids have important applications in areas such as human health and nutrition, and much effort has been directed toward their production in microbial hosts. However, many hurdles must be overcome in the elucidation and functional microbial expression of the genes responsible for biosynthesis of an isoprenoid of interest. Here, we review investigations into isoprenoid function and gene discovery in plants as well as the latest advances in isoprenoid pathway engineering in both plant and microbial hosts.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                15 November 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics & Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University , Nanjing, China
                2Jiangsu Provincial Key Construction Laboratory of Special Biomass Resource Utilization, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University , Nanjing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Wanchai De-Eknamkul, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

                Reviewed by: Thomas J. Bach, Université de Strasbourg, France; Yan Xiang, Anhui Agricultural University, China

                *Correspondence: Qiang Zhuge, qzhuge@ 123456njfu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2019.01476
                6872958
                Copyright © 2019 Wei, Xu, Movahedi, Sun, Li and Zhuge

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 12, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 18, Words: 8750
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany

                carotene, lycopene, populus trichocarpa, pthmgr, terpenoid

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