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      Design of Protein Logic Gate System Operating on Lipid Membranes

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          Abstract

          Lipid membranes are becoming increasingly popular in synthetic biology due to their biophysical properties and crucial role in communication between different compartments. Several alluring protein–membrane sensors have already been developed, whereas protein logic gates designs on membrane-embedded proteins are very limited. Here we demonstrate the construction of a two-level protein–membrane logic gate with an OR-AND logic. The system consists of an engineered pH-dependent pore-forming protein listeriolysin O and its DARPin-based inhibitor, conjugated to a lipid vesicle membrane. The gate responds to low pH and removal of the inhibitor from the membrane either by switching to a reducing environment, protease cleavage, or any other signal depending on the conjugation chemistry used for inhibitor attachment to the membrane. This unique protein logic gate vesicle system advances generic sensing and actuator platforms used in synthetic biology and could be utilized in drug delivery.

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          Most cited references48

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          Continuous base identification for single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing.

          A single-molecule method for sequencing DNA that does not require fluorescent labelling could reduce costs and increase sequencing speeds. An exonuclease enzyme might be used to cleave individual nucleotide molecules from the DNA, and when coupled to an appropriate detection system, these nucleotides could be identified in the correct order. Here, we show that a protein nanopore with a covalently attached adapter molecule can continuously identify unlabelled nucleoside 5'-monophosphate molecules with accuracies averaging 99.8%. Methylated cytosine can also be distinguished from the four standard DNA bases: guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine. The operating conditions are compatible with the exonuclease, and the kinetic data show that the nucleotides have a high probability of translocation through the nanopore and, therefore, of not being registered twice. This highly accurate tool is suitable for integration into a system for sequencing nucleic acids and for analysing epigenetic modifications.
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            Synthetic biology: applications come of age

            Key Points Early synthetic biology designs, namely the genetic toggle switch and repressilator, showed that regulatory components can be characterized and assembled to bring about complex, electronics-inspired behaviours in living systems (for example, memory storage and timekeeping). Through the characterization and assembly of genetic parts and biological building blocks, many more devices have been constructed, including switches, memory elements, oscillators, pulse generators, digital logic gates, filters and communication modules. Advances in the field are now allowing expansion beyond small gene networks to the realm of larger biological programs, which hold promise for a wide range of applications, including biosensing, therapeutics and the production of biofuels, pharmaceuticals and biomaterials. Synthetic biosensing circuits consist of sensitive elements that bind analytes and transducer modules that mobilize cellular responses. Balancing these two modules involves engineering modularity and specificity into the various circuits. Biosensor sensitive elements include environment-responsive promoters (transcriptional), RNA aptamers (translational) and protein receptors (post-translational). Biosensor transducer modules include engineered gene networks (transcriptional), non-coding regulatory RNAs (translational) and protein signal-transduction circuits (post-translational). The contributions of synthetic biology to therapeutics include: engineered networks and organisms for disease-mechanism elucidation, drug-target identification, drug-discovery platforms, therapeutic treatment, therapeutic delivery, and drug production and access. In the microbial production of biofuels and pharmaceuticals, synthetic biology has supplemented traditional genetic and metabolic engineering efforts by aiding the construction of optimized biosynthetic pathways. Optimizing metabolic flux through biosynthetic pathways is traditionally accomplished by driving the expression of pathway enzymes with strong, inducible promoters. New synthetic approaches include the rapid diversification of various pathway components, the rational and model-guided assembly of pathway components, and hybrid solutions.
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              Global rigid body modeling of macromolecular complexes against small-angle scattering data.

              New methods to automatically build models of macromolecular complexes from high-resolution structures or homology models of their subunits or domains against x-ray or neutron small-angle scattering data are presented. Depending on the complexity of the object, different approaches are employed for the global search of the optimum configuration of subunits fitting the experimental data. An exhaustive grid search is used for hetero- and homodimeric particles and for symmetric oligomers formed by identical subunits. For the assemblies or multidomain proteins containing more then one subunit/domain per asymmetric unit, heuristic algorithms based on simulated annealing are used. Fast computational algorithms based on spherical harmonics representation of scattering amplitudes are employed. The methods allow one to construct interconnected models without steric clashes, to account for the particle symmetry and to incorporate information from other methods, on distances between specific residues or nucleotides. For multidomain proteins, addition of missing linkers between the domains is possible. Simultaneous fitting of multiple scattering patterns from subcomplexes or deletion mutants is incorporated. The efficiency of the methods is illustrated by their application to complexes of different types in several simulated and practical examples. Limitations and possible ambiguity of rigid body modeling are discussed and simplified docking criteria are provided to rank multiple models. The methods described are implemented in publicly available computer programs running on major hardware platforms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Synth Biol
                ACS Synth Biol
                sb
                asbcd6
                ACS Synthetic Biology
                American Chemical Society
                2161-5063
                29 January 2020
                21 February 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 316-328
                Affiliations
                []Department of Molecular Biology and Nanobiotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry , Hajdrihova ulica 19, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
                []Biomedicine Doctoral Program, University of Ljubljana , Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acssynbio.9b00340
                7308068
                31995709
                da2438bc-5213-45f5-a3b6-217b10af8488
                Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

                History
                : 23 August 2019
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                sb9b00340
                sb9b00340

                Molecular biology
                pore-forming toxin,listeriolysin o,protein logic gates,lipid membrane,darpin,ph
                Molecular biology
                pore-forming toxin, listeriolysin o, protein logic gates, lipid membrane, darpin, ph

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