21 May 2014
Primary effusion lymphoma, Thoracentesis, Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus/human herpes virus 8-negative effusion-based lymphoma, Primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma, Hemodialysis, Human herpes virus 8
Pleural effusion is a ubiquitous complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Common etiologies of pleural effusion in this patient group are heart failure, volume overload, parapneumonic effusion, tuberculotic pleuritis, and uremic pleuritis. Although thoracentesis is a useful diagnostic method of pleural effusion, empirical reduction of the dry weight is often attempted without thoracentesis because pleural effusion is commonly caused by volume overload and responds to the dry-weight reduction. However, this empiricism has a risk of overlooking or delaying the diagnosis of potentially fatal etiologies that need specific treatments. We report an 86-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male on HD with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting with characteristic lymphomatous effusions in the absence of solid tumor masses, which is in association with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection in immunocompromised individuals. The patient presented with left-sided pleural effusion. This is the first case report of PEL developing in a patient receiving HD. Thoracentesis and cytological analysis of the effusion was key to the diagnosis. We also review the literature regarding pleural effusion in HD patients. Further, we examine Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus/HHV8-negative effusion-based lymphoma, a newly proposed distinct lymphoma that clinically and cytomorphologically resembles PEL, because it can be cured without chemotherapy. This report may arouse clinicians' attention regarding the importance of evaluation for pleural effusion in HD patients, especially when the effusion or symptoms associated with pleural effusion are refractory to volume control.