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      Estado nutricio de vitamina A en preescolares con padecimientos oculares Translated title: Nutritional status of vitamin A in preschoolers with ocular diseases

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          Abstract

          El propósito del estudio fue evaluar el estado nutricio de vitamina A en preescolares con padecimientos oculares que acuden al Hospital Civil de Guadalajara. En estudio transversal analítico se incluyeron por conveniencia 100 sujetos (24-71 meses) con padecimiento ocular. El consumo de vitamina A (VA), energía y macro nutrimentos se estimó con una encuesta dietética de recordatorio de 24 horas (EDR-24h). Mediante cromatografía líquida de alta presión (HPLC) se determinó la concentración sérica de retinol y se realizó una citología de impresión conjuntival (CIC) por un patólogo entrenado en la técnica. Se estimaron los índices talla/edad y peso/talla (Puntaje z) y se utilizaron las pruebas de ANOVA, U de Mann Whitney y de correlación de Spearman. Fueron niñas 44,1% y varones 55.9%. Los padecimientos oculares más frecuentes fueron: estrabismo (41,9%), conjuntivitis (19,4%) y padecimientos congénitos (17,2%). Según la EDR-24 h el consumo de vitamina A fue de 374 µg/día ± 706; la concentración de Retinol sérico 30 µg/dL ± 7,6 y CIC fue normal en 75,6%. Sólo 3.2% a 3,5% presentaron deficiencia de VA (concentración de retinol y CIC). No hubo asociación entre padecimientos oculares y deficiencia de VA. Hubo correlación positiva entre consumo de vitamina A e índice peso/talla (r = 0,244). En conclusión, la mayoría de los preescolares cubrió la ingestión recomendada de vitamina A, la deficiencia de esta vitamina fue baja y no se asoció a padecimientos oculares.

          Translated abstract

          SUMMARY The purpose was to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A in preschool children with ocular diseases attending to the Hospital Civil of Guadalajara. In a cross sectional design 100 preschool children between 24 and 71 mo of age with ocular diseases were included. Vitamin A intake was evaluated by 24 h dietetic recall, plasma Retinol concentration by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC); and, conjunctiva impression cytology (CIC) was carried out by a trained pathologist. ANOVA and U Mann Whitney tests, and also Spearman correlations were estimated. There were 44.1% females and 55,9% males. Strabismus was the most common disease (41,9%), conjunctivitis (19,4%), and congenital diseases (17,2%). The mean intake of Vitamin A was 374 µg/d ± 706 and the serum concentration of retinol was of 30 µg/dL ± 7,6; CIC was normal in 75,6%. The percentage of vitamin A deficiency was 3,2% according to the serum concentration of Retinol and 3,5% to the CIC criteria. It was not association between the nutritional status of vitamin A and ocular diseases. A positive correlation between vitamin A intake and weight/height index (r = 0,244) was found. In conclusion, most preschool children covered the dietary reference intake recommendation of vitamin A; deficiency of this vitamin was lower and, it was not associated to ocular diseases.

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          Causes and temporal trends of blindness and severe visual impairment in children in schools for the blind in North India.

          To describe the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) in children in schools for the blind in north India, and explore temporal trends in the major causes. A total of 703 children were examined in 13 blind schools in Delhi. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision which included sections on visual acuity, additional non-ocular disabilities, onset of visual loss, the most affected anatomical part of the eye concerning visual impairment, and the aetiological category of the child's disorder based on the timing of insult leading to visual loss was administered in all children. With best correction, 22 (3.1%) were severely visually impaired (visual acuity in the better eye of <6/60) and 628 (89.3%) children were blind (visual acuity in the better eye of <3/60). Anatomical sites of SVI/BL were whole globe in 27.4% children, cornea 21.7%, retina 15.1%, and lens 10.9%. The underlying cause of visual loss was undetermined in 56.5% children (mainly abnormality since birth 42.3% and cataract 8.3%), childhood disorders were responsible in 28.0% (mainly vitamin A deficiency/measles 20.5%), and hereditary factors were identified in 13.4%. Study of temporal trends of SVI/BL by comparing causes in children in three different age groups-5-8 years, 9-12 years, and 13-16 years-suggests that retinal disorders have become more important while childhood onset disorders (particularly vitamin A deficiency) have declined. Almost half of the children suffered from potentially preventable and/or treatable conditions, with vitamin A deficiency/measles and cataract the leading causes. Retinal disorders seem to be increasing in importance while childhood disorders have declined over a period of 10 years.
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            Nutritional influences on linear growth: a general review.

            The first section of this paper reviews what is known about the roles of specific nutrients in the general linear growth faltering that occurs in developing countries. Those reviewed are energy, protein, zinc, iron, copper, iodine and vitamin A. For none of these nutrients was there clear, consistent evidence that supplementation with the nutrient benefited linear growth. Rather, interventions with each specific nutrient had a positive effect on length gain in some studies, while in others these affected only weight gain or had no effect. Reasons for these conflicting results are suggested, including the strong probability that growth is limited by multiple, simultaneous deficiencies in many populations. This point is illustrated with data from the Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) and other reports. Most interventions with single nutrients have been tested on children older than the age when linear growth faltering is most rapid, that is, within a few months of birth. Possible reasons why growth stunting begins so early in life are presented, but these are mostly hypothetical because of the paucity of information on this topic.
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              Micronutrient deficiencies in developing and affluent countries.

              Micronutrient deficiencies, also known as 'hidden hunger', are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. Three nutritional problems that have serious consequences are deficiencies of iron, vitamin A and iodine. It is estimated that in today's world, iron deficiency anemia affects two billion people, mostly women and children. Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency affects 2.8 million children under 5 years of age. Iodine deficiency disorders affect 740 million people. Cuba is employing various programs to deal with these micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary diversification, fortification of foods and supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations are included in Cuba's response to these deficiencies. Urban agriculture is one strategy to increase dietary diversity. The aim is to increase both the availability and consumption of vegetables and fruits. Food fortification takes many forms in Cuba today and various supplementation programs are carried out. The most common supplemental program in the country is the prenatal program. This program provides four essential nutrients: iron, ascorbic acid, vitamin A and folic acid. At present, iodination covers more than 90% of the total amount of salt used for human consumption. Results of research carried out in Cuba have shown that vitamin A deficiency is nonexistent in children up to 7 y of age. Foods and preparations for these programs are delivered gratuitously or at very low prices.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Role: ND
                Role: ND
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                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2009
                : 59
                : 3
                : 266-270
                Article
                S0004-06222009000300006
                da382659-d20d-478c-b9fc-37879766140b

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Vitamin A deficiency,preschool children,ocular disease,Deficiencia de vitamina A,preescolares,padecimiento ocular

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