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      Sensitivity of bats to urbanization: a review

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          Abstract

          In this article we review the current knowledge of the effects of urban expansion on bats and assess the potential of these mammals as bioindicators of urbanization. The response of bats to this process is highly species-specific: some species tolerate urban habitat or are even favoured by its roosting or foraging opportunities, others are affected by the loss or fragmentation of key natural habitat, or by the physical and chemical pollution associated with urbanization. Species responses generally translate into altered community structures, with few markedly dominating species. We propose different hypothetical models of bat fitness along an urbanization gradient and discuss why bat population density may not be an effective fitness proxy to assess the reactions of these mammals to urban expansion. We also suggest that urban habitat may act as an ecological trap even for apparently synurbic species. Overall, bat sensitivity to urbanization makes these mammals promising candidates to track the effects of this process of land use change on the biota, but more studies, specifically tailored to explore this role, are needed.

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          Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs.

          The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes in climate favor different species. If equilibrium is reached, a lesser degree of diversity may be sustained by niche diversification or by a compensatory mortality that favors inferior competitors. However, tropical forests and reefs are subject to severe disturbances often enough that equilibrium may never be attained.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                danrusso@unina.it
                Journal
                Mamm Biol
                Mamm. Biol
                Mammalian Biology = Zeitschrift Fur Saugetierkunde
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1616-5047
                1618-1476
                23 October 2014
                2015
                : 80
                : 3
                : 205-212
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.4691.a, ISNI 0000 0001 0790 385X, Wildlife Research Unit, Laboratorio di Ecologia Applicata, Sezione di Biologia e Protezione dei Sistemi Agrari e Forestali, Dipartimento di Agraria, , Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, ; Università 100, Portici, Napoli, I-80055 Italy
                [2 ]GRID grid.5337.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7603, School of Biological Sciences, , University of Bristol, ; Bristol, UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.7841.a, Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie “Charles Darwin”, , Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, ; Rome, Italy
                Article
                80030205
                10.1016/j.mambio.2014.10.003
                7094881
                32226358
                da38ecb6-1ffb-4a9e-a590-528e36402def
                © Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde, e. V. DGS 2014

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                History
                : 26 August 2014
                : 14 October 2014
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2015

                chiroptera,foraging,fragmentation,habitat loss,roost
                chiroptera, foraging, fragmentation, habitat loss, roost

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