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      World Health Organization Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (WHO GASP): review of new data and evidence to inform international collaborative actions and research efforts

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          Abstract

          Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious public health problem, compromising the management and control of gonorrhoea globally. Resistance in N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, the last option for first-line empirical monotherapy of gonorrhoea, has been reported from many countries globally, and sporadic failures to cure especially pharyngeal gonorrhoea with ceftriaxone monotherapy and dual antimicrobial therapies (ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or doxycycline) have been confirmed in several countries. In 2018, the first gonococcal isolates with ceftriaxone resistance plus high-level azithromycin resistance were identified in England and Australia. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (GASP) is essential to monitor AMR trends, identify emerging AMR and provide evidence for refinements of treatment guidelines and public health policy globally. Herein we describe the WHO GASP data from 67 countries in 2015–16, confirmed gonorrhoea treatment failures with ceftriaxone with or without azithromycin or doxycycline, and international collaborative actions and research efforts essential for the effective management and control of gonorrhoea. In most countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin is exceedingly high, azithromycin resistance is present and decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone has emerged. Enhanced global collaborative actions are crucial for the control of gonorrhoea, including improved prevention, early diagnosis, treatment of index patient and partner (including test-of-cure), improved and expanded AMR surveillance (including surveillance of antimicrobial use and treatment failures), increased knowledge of correct antimicrobial use and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials and effective drug regulations and prescription policies (including antimicrobial stewardship). Ultimately, rapid, accurate and affordable point-of-care diagnostic tests (ideally also predicting AMR and/or susceptibility), new therapeutic antimicrobials and, the only sustainable solution, gonococcal vaccine(s) are imperative.

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          Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the 21st century: past, evolution, and future.

          Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally. Given the global nature of gonorrhea, the high rate of usage of antimicrobials, suboptimal control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and treatment failures, slow update of treatment guidelines in most geographical settings, and the extraordinary capacity of the gonococci to develop and retain AMR, it is likely that the global problem of gonococcal AMR will worsen in the foreseeable future and that the severe complications of gonorrhea will emerge as a silent epidemic. By understanding the evolution, emergence, and spread of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae, including its molecular and phenotypic mechanisms, resistance to antimicrobials used clinically can be anticipated, future methods for genetic testing for AMR might permit region-specific and tailor-made antimicrobial therapy, and the design of novel antimicrobials to circumvent the resistance problems can be undertaken more rationally. This review focuses on the history and evolution of gonorrhea treatment regimens and emerging resistance to them, on genetic and phenotypic determinants of gonococcal resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials, including biological costs or benefits; and on crucial actions and future advances necessary to detect and treat resistant gonococcal strains and, ultimately, retain gonorrhea as a treatable infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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            Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Global surveillance and a call for international collaborative action

            In a Policy Forum, Teodora Wi and colleagues discuss the challenges of antimicrobial resistance in gonococci.
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              Sexually transmitted infections: challenges ahead.

              WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have prioritised five areas that represent particular challenges in STI treatment and control. Chlamydia remains the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in high-income countries despite widespread testing recommendations, sensitive and specific non-invasive testing techniques, and cheap effective therapy. We discuss the challenges for chlamydia control and evidence to support a shift from the current focus on infection-based screening to improved management of diagnosed cases and of chlamydial morbidity, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is globally recognised. We review current and potential future control and treatment strategies, with a focus on novel antimicrobials. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal disorder in women, but current treatments are associated with frequent recurrence. Recurrence after treatment might relate to evidence that suggests sexual transmission is integral to the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis, which has substantial implications for the development of effective management approaches. STIs disproportionately affect low-income and middle-income countries. We review strategies for case management, focusing on point-of-care tests that hold considerable potential for improving STI control. Lastly, STIs in men who have sex with men have increased since the late 1990s. We discuss the contribution of new biomedical HIV prevention strategies and risk compensation. Overall, this Commission aims to enhance the understanding of some of the key challenges facing the field of STIs, and outlines new approaches to improve the clinical management of STIs and public health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sexual Health
                Sex. Health
                CSIRO Publishing
                1448-5028
                2019
                2019
                : 16
                : 5
                : 412
                Article
                10.1071/SH19023
                7035961
                31437420
                da410609-daf9-4f62-9d07-abeab2661d67
                © 2019
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.publish.csiro.au/?paper=SH19023

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