Kingfishers comprise about 115 species of the family Alcedinidae , and are an interesting group for cytogenetic studies, for they are among birds with most heterogeneous karyotypes. However, cytogenetics knowledge in Kingfishers is extremely limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the karyotype structure of the Ringed Kingfisher ( Megaceryle torquata Linnaeus, 1766) and Green Kingfisher ( Chloroceryle americana Gmelin, 1788) and also compare them with related species in order to identify chromosomal rearrangements. The Ringed Kingfisher presented 2n = 84 and the Green Kingfisher had 2n = 94. The increase of the chromosome number in the Green Kingfisher possibly originated by centric fissions in macrochromosomes. In addition, karyotype comparisons in Alcedinidae show a heterogeneity in the size and morphology of macrochromosomes, and chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 76 to 132. Thus, it is possible chromosomal fissions in macrochromosomes resulted in the increase of the diploid number, whereas chromosome fusions have originated the karyotypes with low diploid number.