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      Germinação das sementes de Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis em função da disponibilidade hídrica no substrato Translated title: Germination of Conyza canadensis and Conyza bonariensis seeds in function of water availability in the substrate

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          Abstract

          Recentes relatos apresentam Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis como importantes espécies daninhas do sistema agrícola. A grande adaptabilidade ecológica dessas espécies a sistemas conservacionistas de manejo de solo e o aumento da pressão de seleção, pelo intenso uso de herbicidas, podem contribuir para a seleção de biótipos resistentes. O conhecimento dos fatores que controlam a germinação das sementes pode gerar subsídios para estratégias de manejo dessas espécies. A disponibilidade de água afeta diretamente a germinabilidade de sementes. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da restrição hídrica no substrato e seu efeito na germinação das sementes de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis. Foram realizados três ensaios no Laboratório de Sementes da Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Campus Universitário de Alta Floresta-MT. No primeiro experimento, em caixas gerbox, foi estudado o comportamento germinativo das espécies segundo o arranjo fatorial 2 x 6, sendo duas espécies (Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis) e seis potenciais osmóticos (0,0; -0,20; -0,40; -0,60; -0,80; e -1,00 MPa) proporcionados pela diluição em água de polietilenoglicol. No segundo experimento, também em arranjo fatorial 2 x 6, as espécies foram submetidas a menores potenciais osmóticos (0,0; -0,05; -0,10; -0,15; -0,20; e -0,30 MPa) em soluções de polietilenoglicol. No terceiro experimento, as sementes das espécies foram estudadas em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, em que as duas espécies (C. canadensis e C. bonariensis) foram colocadas para germinar em dois substratos (solo de mata e areia), fornecendo-se água suficiente para atingir cinco capacidades de retenção de água (20, 40, 60, 80 e 100%). Os resultados dos experimentos revelaram que a germinação total e a velocidade de germinação das sementes de Conyza foram reduzidas com a diminuição da disponibilidade hídrica no substrato, a partir de -0,20 MPa. Água em excesso no substrato reduziu a emergência total e a velocidade de emergência das sementes das duas espécies de Conyza.

          Translated abstract

          Recent reports show Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis as important weeds of the agricultural system. The great ecological adaptability of these species to conservationist soil management systems and the increased selection pressure caused by intense herbicide use may contribute to selection of resistant biotypes. Understanding the factors factors that control seed germination can supply the basis for the development of management strategies for these species. Water availability has a direct effect on seed germination capacity. Thus, this work aimed to study the effect of water restriction on the substrate and its effect on Conyza Canadensis and C. bonariensis seed germination. Three assays were carried out at the Seed Laboratory of the Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso in Alta Floresta-MT Academic Campus. The first experiment using gearboxes studied the germinative behavior of the species, using the factorial scheme 2 x 6, with two species and six water potentials (0.0; -0.20; -0.40; -0.60; -0.80 and -1.00 MPa) being provided by diluting polyethylene glycol in water. In the second experiment, also in a factorial scheme 2 x 6, the species were submitted to lower water potentials (0.0; -0.05; -0.10; -0.15; -0.20 and -0.30 MPa) in polyethylene glycol solutions. In the third experiment, the seeds were studied in a factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 5, in which the two species germinated in two substrates (forest soil and sand),with sufficient water being supplied to reach five water retention capacities (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%). The results of the experiments showed that total germination and germination speed of Conyza seeds were reduced by decreased water restriction in the substrate, starting from -0.20 MPa. Excess water in the substrate reduced total emergence and emergence speed of Conyza seeds.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Fisiologia de sementes de plantas cultivadas

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            Seed. Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination

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              Factors affecting germination of horseweed (Conyza canadensis)

              The influence of environmental factors on germination and emergence of horseweed was examined in growth chamber experiments. Germination was highest (61%) under 24/20 C day/night temperature under light. Horseweed seed germination was observed under both light (13 h photoperiod) and complete darkness (24 h), but germination under continuous darkness was only 0 to 15% compared with 0 to 61% under light. All other experiments were conducted under 24/20 C and 13-h light conditions. Germination was 19 to 36% over a pH range from 4 to 10, with a trend toward higher germination under neutral-to-alkaline conditions. Horseweed germination was > 20% at < 40 mM NaCl concentration and lowest (4%) at 160 mM NaCl. These data suggest that even at high soil salinity conditions, horseweed can germinate. Germination of horseweed decreased from 25% to 2% as osmotic potential increased from 0 (distilled water) to −0.8 MPa, indicating that germination can still occur under moderate water stress conditions. Horseweed seedling emergence was at its maximum on the soil surface, and no seedlings emerged from seeds placed at a depth of 0.5 cm or higher.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pd
                Planta Daninha
                Planta daninha
                Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas (Viçosa )
                1806-9681
                June 2010
                : 28
                : 2
                : 309-317
                S0100-83582010000200010 10.1590/S0100-83582010000200010

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                PLANT SCIENCES

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