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      Successful Treatment of Severe Digitoxin Intoxication with CytoSorb® Hemoadsorption

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          While several intoxications can be successfully treated with specific antidotes, intoxications with the steroid glycoside digitoxin still represent a major challenge. Besides conventional approaches, CytoSorb<sup>®</sup> hemoadsorption might be another treatment option. We report on an 81-year-old female patient treated in our intensive care unit (ICU) with severe digitoxin intoxication, acute renal failure, and urinary tract infection (UTI). As physiological digitoxin elimination kinetics are known to appear slow, and also in regard to the renal failure, the decision was made to initiate continuous renal replacement therapy combined with CytoSorb hemoadsorption. The patient was hemodynamically stabilized within the first 4 h of treatment and initially required catecholamines to be stopped within 24 h of treatment. Pre- and post-adsorber drug level measurements showed a rapid elimination of digitoxin. Antibiotic treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam was initiated, and despite CytoSorb hemoadsorption therapy and its known potential to reduce plasma concentrations of several drugs, the UTI was successfully treated. After 3 days of CytoSorb treatment, digitoxin plasma levels were stable and almost normalized, and no clinical signs of intoxication were present. Five days after presentation, the patient was transferred from the ICU in a stable condition. CytoSorb hemoadsorption may be an easily available, efficient, and less cost-intensive therapy option than treatment with the Fab fragment, which is the currently recommended therapy for digitalis intoxications. Therefore, the use of CytoSorb might represent an alternative treatment for life-threatening complications of digitoxin intoxications.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb shows a decreased observed versus expected 28-day all-cause mortality in ICU patients with septic shock: a propensity-score-weighted retrospective study

          Background and aims Innovative treatment modalities have not yet shown a clinical benefit in patients with septic shock. To reduce severe cytokinaemia, CytoSorb as an add-on to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) showed promising results in case reports. However, there are no clinical trials investigating outcomes. Methods In this investigator-initiated retrospective study, patients with septic shock were treated with CRRT + CytoSorb (n = 67) or CRRT alone (n = 49). The primary outcome was the 28-day all-cause mortality rate. Patients were weighted by stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights (sIPTW) to overcome differences in baseline characteristics. Results At the start of therapy, CytoSorb-treated patients had higher lactate levels (p < 0.001), lower mean arterial pressure (p = 0.007) and higher levels of noradrenaline (p < 0.001) compared to the CRRT group. For CytoSorb, the mean predicted mortality rate based on a SOFA of 13.8 (n = 67) was 75% (95%CI 71–79%), while the actual 28-day mortality rate was 48% (mean difference − 27%, 95%CI − 38 to − 15%, p < 0.001). For CRRT, based on a SOFA of 12.8 (n = 49), the mean predicted versus observed mortality was 68% versus 51% (mean difference − 16.9% [95%CI − 32.6 to − 1.2%, p = 0.035]). By sIPTW analysis, patients treated with CytoSorb had a significantly lower 28-day mortality rate compared to CRRT alone (53% vs. 72%, respectively, p = 0.038). Independent predictors of 28-day mortality in the CytoSorb group were the presence of pneumosepsis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.47, p = 0.029), higher levels of lactate at the start of CytoSorb (aOR 1.15, p = 0.031) and older age (aOR per 10 years 1.67, p = 0.034). Conclusions CytoSorb was associated with a decreased observed versus expected 28-day all-cause mortality. By IPTW analysis, intervention with CytoSorb may be associated with a decreased all-cause mortality at 28 days compared to CRRT alone. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13054-019-2588-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            In vitro Removal of Therapeutic Drugs with a Novel Adsorbent System

            Background/Aim: Substances in the middle molecular weight range have been shown to play a significant pathogenetic role in as diverse disorders as end-stage renal disease and multiple organ failure. To overcome the limitations in the amount removed by hemofilters, new sorbents with a high biocompatibility are actively being developed. Furthermore, biocompatible sorbents by their nonspecific adsorptive behavior could have great impact on detoxification treatment in exogenous intoxications. We performed an in vitro evaluation of a newly developed highly biocompatible sorbent cartridge (Betasorb ® ), examining its adsorptive capacity concerning therapeutic drugs. Methods: Uremic blood spiked with a range of therapeutic drugs was recirculated for 2 h in an in vitro hemoperfusion circuit containing a Betasorb device for hemoperfusion. The drug concentrations before and after the passage of the cartridge were measured, and the total amount removed was calculated. Results: The sorbent showed effective removal of glycopeptide antibiotics, digoxin, theophylline, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and valproic acid. Moderate removal could be demonstrated for tacrolimus and cyclosporine A; aminoglycosides were removed to a small extent only. Conclusions: Betasorb hemoperfusion shows a potent adsorptive capacity concerning therapeutic drugs (except aminoglycosides) and could be of major value in the treatment of intoxications. On the other hand, drug monitoring and possible adjustments are necessary during Betasorb hemoperfusion to maintain the therapeutic ranges of the drugs in blood.
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              Digoxin-specific Fab fragments as single first-line therapy in digitalis poisoning.

              Despite administration of Fab fragments in digitalis poisoning, high mortality rates are consistently reported. A previous study suggested that Fab fragments prescribed as first-line therapy might improve mortality rate. Our objective was to evaluate this approach.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2021
                16 September 2020
                : 50
                : 1
                : 137-140
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine/Intensive Care, St. Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany
                bDepartment of Cardiology, St. Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany
                cDepartment of Neurology, St. Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany
                Author notes
                *Thomas Georg Karl Breuer, Department of Internal Medicine/Intensive Care, St. Josef-Hospital Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, DE–44791 Bochum (Germany), thomas.breuer@ruhr-uni-bochum.de
                510292 Blood Purif 2021;50:137–140
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 4
                Case Report


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