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      Malnutrition, Airflow Limitation and Severe Emphysema are Risks for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Japanese Subjects: A Retrospective Single-Center Study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Different characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) between Western and Japanese populations have been reported. Risk factors for COPD exacerbation have been reported in Western countries but have not been studied in Japan.

          Patients and Methods

          We retrospectively examined risk factors for COPD exacerbation. A total of 156 Japanese patients were enrolled, and the records of 136 patients were analyzed.

          Results

          In the exacerbation group (n=60), body mass index, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), the FEV 1/FVC ratio (FEV 1/FVC), the percent predicted values of FEV 1 (%FEV 1), and serum total protein (TP) and albumin concentrations were lower, and age, mortality rate, frequency of common cold and pneumonia, COPD severity rankings, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score, and proportions of patients with severe emphysema (>50% of low attenuation area) and receiving long-term oxygen therapy were higher than those in the nonexacerbation group (n=76). However, the proportion of patients with a greater number of eosinophils (≥200/μL and/or ≥2%) and the exhaled nitric oxide concentration did not differ between the two groups. In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for exacerbation were age; long-term oxygen therapy; low FVC, FEV 1, FEV 1/FVC and %FEV 1; high COPD severity ranking and mMRC score; severe emphysema; hypoproteinemia (<6.5 g/dL); hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL); leukocytosis; lymphocytopenia; and anemia. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors were hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia and low FEV 1. Additionally, in patients in the exacerbation-induced mortality subgroup, age, exacerbation frequency, mMRC score and the proportion of patients with lymphocytopenia were higher, and FVC, %FVC, FEV 1, serum TP concentration and the lymphocyte number were lower than those in the exacerbation survival subgroup.

          Conclusion

          Malnutrition, airflow limitation and severe emphysema were risks for exacerbation and mortality associated with infection in Japanese patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.
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            CONUT: A tool for Controlling Nutritional Status. First validation in a hospital population

            Background: The serious problem of hospital undernutrition is still being underestimated, despite its impact on clinical evolution and costs. The screening methods developed so far are not useful for daily clinical practice due to their low effectiveness/cost ratio. Objective:We present an screening tool for CONtrolling NUTritional status (CONUT) that allows an automatic daily assessment of nutritional status of all inpatients that undergo routine analysis. Design: The system is based on a computer application that compiles daily all useful patient information available in hospital databases, through the internal network. It automatically assesses the nutritional status taking into account laboratory information including serum albumin, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count. We have studied the association between the results of the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and Full Nutritional Assessment (FNA) with those from CONUT, in a sample of 53 individuals. Results: The agreement degree between CONUT and FNA as measured by kappa index is 0.669 (p = 0.003), and between CONUT and SGA is 0.488 (p = 0.034). Considering FNA as "gold standard" we obtain a sensitivity of 92.3 and a specificity of 85.0. Conclusions: CONUT seems to be an efficient tool for early detection and continuous control of hospital undernutrition, with the suitable characteristics for these screening functions.
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              CT scan findings of emphysema predict mortality in COPD.

              Emphysematous change as assessed by CT imaging has been reported to correlate with COPD prognostic factors such as FEV(1) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco). However, few studies have assessed the relationship between CT scan assessment and COPD mortality from mild to severe stages of the disease. In this study, we analyzed this relationship in patients with various stages of COPD. Two hundred and fifty-one outpatients with stable COPD were included in the study. CT scan and pulmonary function tests were performed at study entry in a single institution. The percentage of low attenuation area was measured to quantitatively evaluate emphysematous change with a custom-made software. Prognostic data also were collected, and the median follow-up time was 8 years. Of the 251 patients, 79 died, with 40 classified as respiratory deaths not involving lung cancer. Univariate Cox analysis revealed that emphysematous change as assessed by CT scan, lung function, age, or BMI were significantly correlated with mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that emphysematous change as assessed by CT scan had the best association with mortality. Emphysematous change as assessed by CT scan predicts respiratory mortality in outpatients with various stages of COPD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                22 April 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 857-868
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Advanced Preventive Medicine for Infectious Disease, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine , Sendai 980-8575, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurihara Central Hospital , Kurihara 987-2205, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Kurihara Central Hospital , Kurihara 987-2205, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine , Sendai 980-8575, Japan
                [5 ]Department of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine , Sendai 980-8575, Japan
                [6 ]Department of Radiology, Kurihara Central Hospital , Kurihara 987-2205, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mutsuo Yamaya Department of Advanced Preventive Medicine for Infectious Disease, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine , Sendai980-8575, JapanTel +81-22-717-7184Fax +81-22-717-7576 Email myamaya@med.tohoku.ac.jp
                Article
                238457
                10.2147/COPD.S238457
                7183777
                © 2020 Yamaya et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 38, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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