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      Individualized Hemodialysis Treatment: A Perspective on Residual Kidney Function and Precision Medicine in Nephrology

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          Abstract

          Background: Residual kidney function (RKF) is often expected to inevitably and rapidly decline among hemodialysis patients and, hence, has been inadvertently ignored in clinical practice. The importance of RKF has been revisited in some recent studies. Given that patients with end-stage renal disease now tend to initiate maintenance hemodialysis therapy with higher RKF levels, there seem to be important opportunities for incremental hemo­dialysis by individualizing the dose and frequency according to their RKF levels. This approach is realigned with precision medicine and patient-centeredness. Summary: In this article, we first review the available methods to estimate RKF among hemodialysis patients. We then discuss the importance of maintaining and monitoring RKF levels based on a variety of clinical aspects, including volume overload, blood pressure control, mineral and bone metabolism, nutrition, and patient survival. We also review several potential measures to protect RKF: the use of high-flux and biocompatible membranes, the use of ultrapure dialysate, the incorporation of hemodiafiltration, incremental hemodialysis, and a low-protein diet, as well as general care such as avoiding nephrotoxic events, maintaining appropriate blood pressure, and better control of mineral and bone disorder parameters. Key Message: Individualized hemodialysis regimens may maintain RKF, lead to a better quality of life without compromising long-term survival, and ensure precision medicine and patient-centeredness in nephrology practice.

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          Most cited references 71

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          A malnutrition-inflammation score is correlated with morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

          Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) occurs commonly in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and may correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. An optimal, comprehensive, quantitative system that assesses MICS could be a useful measure of clinical status and may be a predictor of outcome in MHD patients. We therefore attempted to develop and validate such an instrument, comparing it with conventional measures of nutrition and inflammation, as well as prospective hospitalization and mortality. Using components of the conventional Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a semiquantitative scale with three severity levels, the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS), a fully quantitative scoring system consisting of 7 SGA components, with total score ranging between 7 (normal) and 35 (severely malnourished), was recently developed. To improve the DMS, we added three new elements to the 7 DMS components: body mass index, serum albumin level, and total iron-binding capacity to represent serum transferrin level. This new comprehensive Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) has 10 components, each with four levels of severity, from 0 (normal) to 3 (very severe). The sum of all 10 MIS components ranges from 0 to 30, denoting increasing degree of severity. These scores were compared with anthropometric measurements, near-infrared-measured body fat percentage, laboratory measures that included serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and 12-month prospective hospitalization and mortality rates. Eighty-three outpatients (44 men, 39 women; age, 59 +/- 15 years) on MHD therapy for at least 3 months (43 +/- 33 months) were evaluated at the beginning of this study and followed up for 1 year. The SGA, DMS, and MIS were assessed simultaneously on all patients by a trained physician. Case-mix-adjusted correlation coefficients for the MIS were significant for hospitalization days (r = 0.45; P < 0.001) and frequency of hospitalization (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). Compared with the SGA and DMS, most pertinent correlation coefficients were stronger with the MIS. The MIS, but not the SGA or DMS, correlated significantly with creatinine level, hematocrit, and CRP level. During the 12-month follow-up, 9 patients died and 6 patients left the cohort. The Cox proportional hazard-calculated relative risk for death for each 10-unit increase in the MIS was 10.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.28 to 47.64; P = 0.002). The MIS was superior to its components or different subversions for predicting mortality. The MIS appears to be a comprehensive scoring system with significant associations with prospective hospitalization and mortality, as well as measures of nutrition, inflammation, and anemia in MHD patients. The MIS may be superior to the conventional SGA and the DMS, as well as to individual laboratory values, as a predictor of dialysis outcome and an indicator of MICS.
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            A randomized, controlled trial of early versus late initiation of dialysis.

            In clinical practice, there is considerable variation in the timing of the initiation of maintenance dialysis for patients with stage V chronic kidney disease, with a worldwide trend toward early initiation. In this study, conducted at 32 centers in Australia and New Zealand, we examined whether the timing of the initiation of maintenance dialysis influenced survival among patients with chronic kidney disease. We randomly assigned patients 18 years of age or older with progressive chronic kidney disease and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between 10.0 and 15.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area (calculated with the use of the Cockcroft-Gault equation) to planned initiation of dialysis when the estimated GFR was 10.0 to 14.0 ml per minute (early start) or when the estimated GFR was 5.0 to 7.0 ml per minute (late start). The primary outcome was death from any cause. Between July 2000 and November 2008, a total of 828 adults (mean age, 60.4 years; 542 men and 286 women; 355 with diabetes) underwent randomization, with a median time to the initiation of dialysis of 1.80 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 2.23) in the early-start group and 7.40 months (95% CI, 6.23 to 8.27) in the late-start group. A total of 75.9% of the patients in the late-start group initiated dialysis when the estimated GFR was above the target of 7.0 ml per minute, owing to the development of symptoms. During a median follow-up period of 3.59 years, 152 of 404 patients in the early-start group (37.6%) and 155 of 424 in the late-start group (36.6%) died (hazard ratio with early initiation, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.30; P=0.75). There was no significant difference between the groups in the frequency of adverse events (cardiovascular events, infections, or complications of dialysis). In this study, planned early initiation of dialysis in patients with stage V chronic kidney disease was not associated with an improvement in survival or clinical outcomes. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, 12609000266268.)
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              The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

              Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRM
                Cardiorenal Med
                10.1159/issn.1664-5502
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1664-3828
                1664-5502
                2019
                February 2019
                11 December 2018
                : 9
                : 2
                : 69-82
                Affiliations
                aHarold Simmons Center of Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California, USA
                bNephrology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Seomyong Christianity Hospital, Pohang, Republic of Korea
                cNephrology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, NHIS Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of Korea
                dNephrology Section, Tibor Rubin Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Long Beach, California, USA
                eFielding School of Public Health at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
                Author notes
                *Yoshitsugu Obi, MD, PhD, Harold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, 101 The City Drive South, City Tower, Orange, CA 92868-3217 (USA), E-Mail yobi@uci.edu
                Article
                494808 Cardiorenal Med 2019;9:69–82
                10.1159/000494808
                30537709
                © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 14
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