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      Effect of a looming visual cue on situation awareness and perceived urgency in response to a takeover request


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          This study aimed to investigate the effect of a looming visual cue on situation awareness and perceived urgency in response to a takeover request (TOR), and to explore the underlying mechanisms of this effect through three experiments. In Experiment 1, the optimal size and speed of a red disk were determined, which were effective in capturing looming motion and conveying the urgency of the situation. The results indicated that both looming speed and size ratio had significant effects on situation awareness and perceived urgency. In Experiment 2, the effects of looming stimuli were compared with dimming stimuli, and the results showed that the looming visual cue was more effective in promoting perceived urgency and situation awareness. The results also indicated that the looming visual cue attracted more visual attention than the dimming visual cue, in line with previous studies. Experiment 3 utilized a driving simulator to test the effectiveness of the looming visual cue in promoting fast and appropriate responses to TORs in complex driving scenarios. The results showed that the looming visual cue was more effective in promoting perceived urgency and enhancing situation awareness, especially in highly complex driving situations. Overall, the findings suggest that the looming visual cue is a powerful tool for promoting fast and appropriate responses to TORs and enhancing situation awareness, particularly in complex driving scenarios. These results have important implications for designing effective TOR systems and improving driver safety on the road.

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          Most cited references68

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          Rapid innate defensive responses of mice to looming visual stimuli.

          Much of brain science is concerned with understanding the neural circuits that underlie specific behaviors. While the mouse has become a favorite experimental subject, the behaviors of this species are still poorly explored. For example, the mouse retina, like that of other mammals, contains ∼20 different circuits that compute distinct features of the visual scene [1, 2]. By comparison, only a handful of innate visual behaviors are known in this species--the pupil reflex [3], phototaxis [4], the optomotor response [5], and the cliff response [6]--two of which are simple reflexes that require little visual processing. We explored the behavior of mice under a visual display that simulates an approaching object, which causes defensive reactions in some other species [7, 8]. We show that mice respond to this stimulus either by initiating escape within a second or by freezing for an extended period. The probability of these defensive behaviors is strongly dependent on the parameters of the visual stimulus. Directed experiments identify candidate retinal circuits underlying the behavior and lead the way into detailed study of these neural pathways. This response is a new addition to the repertoire of innate defensive behaviors in the mouse that allows the detection and avoidance of aerial predators.
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            Measurement of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems

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              Infant responses to impending collision: optical and real.

              Twenty-four infants ranging in age from 2 to 11 weeks responded to symmetrically expanding shadows, which optically specify an approaching object, with an integrated avoidance response and upset. This response did not occur for asymmetrically expanding shadows nor for contracting shadows that specify an object on a miss path and a receding object. The response was observed in all the infants regardless of age, and the addition of kinetic depth information to the displays did not increase the intensity or likelihood of the response. In a second experiment, seven infants defensively reacted to the approach of a real object except when it was on a miss path.

                Author and article information

                09 December 2023
                15 January 2024
                09 December 2023
                : 10
                : 1
                : e23053
                [a ]Global Convergence Content Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
                [b ]Samsung Electronics, South Korea
                [c ]Stanford Center at the Incheon Global Campus, Stanford University, South Korea
                Author notes
                []119 Songdo Munhwa-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, South Korea, 21985 neets11@ 123456naver.com
                S2405-8440(23)10261-1 e23053
                © 2023 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 2 December 2022
                : 22 November 2023
                : 24 November 2023
                Research Article

                takeover request,highly automated driving,perceived urgency,situation awareness,looming visual cue,driving simulator


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