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      Vascular Structural and Functional Changes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Evidence for the Roles of Abnormal Myogenic Responsiveness and Dyslipidemia

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Circulation
      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          To further investigate vascular morphology and function in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (type 2D), small arteries were examined in vitro from carefully defined cohorts of patients with or without concomitant hypertension and the results compared with those from selected normotensive nondiabetic control subjects and a group of untreated patients with essential hypertension (EH). Blood vessels were studied through the use of pressure myography to determine vascular morphology, mechanics, and myogenic responsiveness, together with testing of constrictor and dilator function. Small arteries from patients with EH demonstrated eutrophic inward remodeling and an increased distensibility. Vessels from type 2D patients demonstrated hypertrophy, a further increase in distensibility, and a highly significant loss of myogenic responsiveness compared with patients with EH and control patients. Vasoconstrictor function to norepinephrine was normal in patients with type 2D and type 2D+H and EH. Endothelium-dependent dilation was normal in patients with EH but abnormal in patients with type 2D and type 2D+H. There was a significant correlation between dilator impairment and the degree of dyslipidemia recorded in all groups. These results demonstrate vascular hypertrophy in small arteries from patients with type 2D. This could be a consequence of impaired myogenic responsiveness, which will increase wall stress for a given intraluminal pressure, which may be a stimulus for vascular hypertrophy. A substantial proportion of endothelial dysfunction can be attributed to an effect of the abnormal lipid profile seen in such patients.

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          Small artery structure in hypertension. Dual processes of remodeling and growth.

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            Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein Decreases the Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

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              Inactivation of endothelial derived relaxing factor by oxidized lipoproteins.

              Endothelial cell derived relaxing factor (EDRF) mediated relaxation of blood vessels is impaired in vessels exposed to lipoproteins in vitro and in arteries of hyperlipidemic humans and animals. To investigate the mechanism by which lipoproteins impair the effects of EDRF, which is likely nitric oxide (NO) or a related molecule, we have bioassayed EDRF/NO activity by measuring its ability to increase cGMP accumulation in rat fetal lung cultured fibroblasts (RFL-6 cells). Low density lipoprotein modified by oxidation (ox-LDL) induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of EDRF activity that had been released from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) stimulated with bradykinin or the calcium ionophore A23187. In addition, lipoproteins directly impaired authentic NO-induced stimulation of cGMP accumulation in the detector cells; stimulation by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected. Ox-LDL or oxidized HDL3 were highly potent in blocking NO-stimulated cGMP accumulation with EC50's of approximately 1 microgram/ml. Lipid extracted from ox-LDL blocked NO-stimulated cGMP accumulation to about the same extent as intact ox-LDL, while the protein component of ox-LDL did not inhibit the cGMP response. These results suggest that the lipid component of oxidized lipoproteins inactivate EDRF after its release from endothelial cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                December 10 2002
                December 10 2002
                : 106
                : 24
                : 3037-3043
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Cardiovascular Research Group, Department of Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK.
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.0000041432.80615.A5
                12473548
                da843c38-7553-49b1-b55a-fb118dd755b2
                © 2002

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