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      Time Course of Organic Anion Excretion in Rats with Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction: Role of Organic Anion Transporters (Oat1 and Oat3)

      , ,

      Nephron Physiology

      S. Karger AG

      Organic anions, Ureteral obstruction, Renal depuration, Oat1, Oat3

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          Abstract

          Background: Urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of renal failure. In this study, we evaluated the time course of P-aminohippurate (PAH) renal excretion and the cortical expression of organic anion transporters (Oat1 and Oat3) at 1 (BUO-1), 2 (BUO-2) and 7 (BUO-7) days after release of 24-hour bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) in the rat. Methods: Conventional clearance technique, differential centrifugation, semiquantitative immunoblotting and immunohistochemical techniques have been employed. Results: These studies showed that Oat1 and Oat3 in basolateral membranes were downregulated both at BUO-1 and BUO-2. Concomitantly, the rats developed a reduction in PAH renal elimination. In contrast, total recovery in PAH renal excretion and in the expression of Oat1 and Oat3 were observed at BUO-7, as compared with the sham group. A direct correlation was observed between the secretory clearance of PAH and Oat1 (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.88) and Oat3 (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.83) expression in basolateral membranes. Conclusion: These results indicate that the differential expression of organic anion transporters is one of the main molecular mechanisms contributing to the organic anion excretion modifications observed during the time course of obstructive nephropathy. This study provides evidence regarding the importance of adjusting the dose regimens of negatively charged drugs during the different time phases of this pathology.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Role of organic anion transporters in the tubular transport of indoxyl sulfate and the induction of its nephrotoxicity.

          In uremic patients, various uremic toxins are accumulated and exert various biologic effects on uremia. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of uremic toxins that is derived from dietary protein, and serum levels of IS are markedly increased in both uremic rats and patients. It has been previously reported that the accumulation of IS promotes the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). This study demonstrates the role of rat organic anion transporters (rOATs) in the transport of IS and the induction of its nephrotoxicity. The administration of IS to 5/6-nephrectomized rats caused a faster progression of CRF, and immunohistochemistry revealed that IS was detected in the proximal and distal tubules where rOAT1 (proximal tubules) and/or rOAT3 (proximal and distal tubules) were also shown to be localized. In in vitro study, the proximal tubular cells derived from mouse that stably express rOAT1 (S2 rOAT1) and rOAT3 (S2 rOAT3) were established. IS inhibited organic anion uptake by S2 rOAT1 and S2 rOAT3, and the Ki values were 34.2 and 74.4 microM, respectively. Compared with mock, S2 rOAT1 and S2 rOAT3 exhibited higher levels of IS uptake, which was inhibited by probenecid and cilastatin, organic anion transport inhibitors. The addition of IS induced a decrease in the viability of S2 rOAT1 and S2 rOAT3 as compared with the mock, which was rescued by probenecid. These results suggest that rOAT1 and rOAT3 play an important role in the transcellular transport of IS and the induction of its nephrotoxicity.
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            Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter.

            Numerous drugs and endogenous compounds are efficiently excreted from the renal proximal tubule via carrier-mediated pathways. Transepithelial excretion of organic anions occurs via their accumulative transport from the blood into the proximal tubule cells across the basolateral membrane and subsequent secretion into the urine through the apical membrane. Here we report on the isolation of a novel complementary DNA from rat kidney that encodes a 551-amino acid residue protein (OAT1) with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OAT1 mediated sodium-independent para-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake (Km = 14.3 +/- 2.9 microM). The uptake rate of PAH was increased by the outwardly directed dicarboxylate gradient, consisting with the idea that OAT1 is an organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger. OAT1 displayed remarkably wide substrate selectivity, covering endogenous substrates such as cyclic nucleotides, a prostaglandin and uric acid, and a variety of drugs with different structures (e.g. antibiotics, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diuretics, an antineoplastic drug, and a uricosuric drug). The Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that OAT1 is exclusively expressed in the particular segment of the proximal tubule in the kidney. These data suggest that OAT1 is a multispecific organic anion transporter at the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. Isolation of OAT1 will facilitate elucidation of the molecular basis of drug kinetics and the development of new drugs lacking unwanted side effects.
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              Molecular and cellular physiology of renal organic cation and anion transport.

              Organic cations and anions (OCs and OAs, respectively) constitute an extraordinarily diverse array of compounds of physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological importance. Renal secretion of these compounds, which occurs principally along the proximal portion of the nephron, plays a critical role in regulating their plasma concentrations and in clearing the body of potentially toxic xenobiotics agents. The transepithelial transport involves separate entry and exit steps at the basolateral and luminal aspects of renal tubular cells. It is increasingly apparent that basolateral and luminal OC and OA transport reflects the concerted activity of a suite of separate transport processes arranged in parallel in each pole of proximal tubule cells. The cloning of multiple members of several distinct transport families, the subsequent characterization of their activity, and their subcellular localization within distinct regions of the kidney now allows the development of models describing the molecular basis of the renal secretion of OCs and OAs. This review examines recent work on this issue, with particular emphasis on attempts to integrate information concerning the activity of cloned transporters in heterologous expression systems to that observed in studies of physiologically intact renal systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2008
                November 2008
                27 October 2008
                : 110
                : 3
                : p45-p56
                Affiliations
                Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Rosario, Argentina
                Article
                166996 Nephron Physiol 2008;110:p45
                10.1159/000166996
                18953184
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 43, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Organic anions, Ureteral obstruction, Renal depuration, Oat1, Oat3

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