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      Salix transect of Europe: records of willow-associated weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Greece to Arctic Norway, with insights from DNA barcoding

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          Curculionid beetles associated with willow ( Salix spp.) were surveyed at 42 sites across Europe, from Greece (lat. 38.8 °N) to arctic Norway (lat. 69.7 °N). DNA sequence data provide additional verification of identifications and geographic clustering.

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          In all, 73 curculionid species were collected from willows, of which seven were particularly abundant. The most widespread species were: Acalyptus carpini Fabricius, 1793 at 15 sites; Tachyerges stigma Germar, 1821 at 13 sites; Phyllobius oblongus (Linnaeus, 1758) at 11 sites; Phyllobius maculicornis Germar, 1824 at 10 sites; and Archarius salicivorus (Paykull, 1792), Melanapion minimum (Herbst, 1797), and Phyllobius cf. pyri (Linnaeus, 1758) all at nine sites. The mean number of curculionid species collected on willow at each site was 5.5 (range 0-14). Compared to chrysomelids, curculionids were richer in species but the species had relatively low average abundance. Widespread curculionid species appear to have scattered and patchy observed distributions with limited geographical structuring in our data. However, deeper sampling (e.g. over multiple seasons and years), would give a better indication of distribution, and may increase apparent geographical structuring. There is some site-to-site variation in colour in a few taxa, but little notable size variation. DNA barcoding, performed on some of the more common species, provides clear species clusters and definitive separation of the taxonomically more challenging species, as well as some interesting geographic insights. Our northernmost sample of Phyllobius oblongus is unique in clustering with Canadian samples of this species. On the other hand, our samples of Acalyptus carpini cluster with European samples and are distinct from a separate Canadian cluster of this species. We provide the first available DNA sequences for Phyllobius thalassinus Gyllenhal, 1834 (Hungary).

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          Most cited references 31

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          A plea for DNA taxonomy

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            Molecular and morphological phylogenetics of weevils (coleoptera, curculionoidea): do niche shifts accompany diversification?

            The main goals of this study were to provide a robust phylogeny for the families of the superfamily Curculionoidea, to discover relationships and major natural groups within the family Curculionidae, and to clarify the evolution of larval habits and host-plant associations in weevils to analyze their role in weevil diversification. Phylogenetic relationships among the weevils (Curculionoidea) were inferred from analysis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA; approximately 2,000 bases) and 115 morphological characters of larval and adult stages. A worldwide sample of 100 species was compiled to maximize representation of weevil morphological and ecological diversity. All families and the main subfamilies of Curculionoidea were represented. The family Curculionidae sensu lato was represented by about 80 species in 30 "subfamilies" of traditional classifications. Phylogenetic reconstruction was accomplished by parsimony analysis of separate and combined molecular and morphological data matrices and Bayesian analysis of the molecular data; tree topology support was evaluated. Results of the combined analysis of 18S rDNA and morphological data indicate that monophyly of and relationships among each of the weevil families are well supported with the topology ((Nemonychidae, Anthribidae) (Belidae (Attelabidae (Caridae (Brentidae, Curculionidae))))). Within the clade Curculionidae sensu lato, the basal positions are occupied by mostly monocot-associated taxa with the primitive type of male genitalia followed by the Curculionidae sensu stricto, which is made up of groups with the derived type of male genitalia. High support values were found for the monophyly of some distinct curculionid groups such as Dryophthorinae (several tribes represented) and Platypodinae (Tesserocerini plus Platypodini), among others. However, the subfamilial relationships in Curculionidae are unresolved or weakly supported. The phylogeny estimate based on combined 18S rDNA and morphological data suggests that diversification in weevils was accompanied by niche shifts in host-plant associations and larval habits. Pronounced conservatism is evident in larval feeding habits, particularly in the host tissue consumed. Multiple shifts to use of angiosperms in Curculionoidea were identified, each time associated with increases in weevil diversity and subsequent shifts back to gymnosperms, particularly in the Curculionidae.
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                Author and article information

                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                03 June 2020
                : 8
                [1 ] Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD, London, United Kingdom Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD London United Kingdom
                [2 ] Universtità degli Studi di Padova, Legnaro (Padova), Italy Universtità degli Studi di Padova Legnaro (Padova) Italy
                [3 ] World Biodiversity Association Onlus, Verona, Italy World Biodiversity Association Onlus Verona Italy
                [4 ] University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada
                [5 ] Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom Natural History Museum London United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Corresponding authors: Quentin C Cronk ( quentin.cronk@ 123456ubc.ca ), Diana M Percy ( diana.percy@ 123456ubc.ca ).

                Academic editor: Yasen Mutafchiev

                52881 13300
                Roy Canty, Enrico Ruzzier, Quentin C Cronk, Diana M Percy

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 6, References: 35
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Salix transect of Europe
                Biodiversity & Conservation


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