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      Antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties of wines and winery byproducts in relation to their flavonoid content.

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          Abstract

          Grapes produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of the plants against invading phytopathogens. These metabolites include numerous phenolic compounds that are also active against human pathogens. Grapes are used to produce a variety of wines, grape juices, and raisins. Grape pomace, seeds, and skins, the remains of the grapes that are a byproduct of winemaking, also contain numerous bioactive compounds that differ from those found in grapes and wines. This overview surveys and interprets our present knowledge of the activities of wines and winery byproducts and some of their bioactive components against foodborne (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus), medical (Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and oral pathogenic bacteria, viruses (adeno, cytomegalo, hepatitis, noro, rota), fungi (Candida albicans, Botrytis cinerea), parasites (Eimeria tenella, Trichomonas vaginalis), and microbial toxins (ochratoxin A, Shiga toxin) in culture, in vivo, and in/on food (beef, chicken, frankfurters, hot dogs, lettuce, oysters, peppers, pork, sausages, soup, spinach) in relation to composition and sensory properties. Also covered are antimicrobial wine marinades, antioxidative and immunostimulating aspects, and adverse effects associated with wine consumption. The collated information and suggested research needs might facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of wines and byproducts to help improve microbial food safety and prevent or treat animal and human infections.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J. Agric. Food Chem.
          Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
          1520-5118
          0021-8561
          Jul 2 2014
          : 62
          : 26
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, United States.
          Article
          10.1021/jf501266s
          24945318
          da9cca42-f316-44ac-8753-464ba2df5362

          adverse effects,antibacterial,antibiotic properties,antifungal,antiinflammatory effects,antioxidative effects,antiviral,flavonoids,food,grape pomace,grape seeds,grape skins,grapevine leaves and stems,human infections,immunostimulating effects,microbial food safety,microbial toxins,oral bacteria,parasites,pathogens,research needs,sensory properties,wine,wine byproducts,wine compostion,wine marinades

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