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      Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

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          Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF), a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb) pulp (AqSF-P) or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY), on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice.


          Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were fed on a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w) diet (HCBD) containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w) with or without AqSF-P (0.3%−9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w) or BY (0.025%, w/w) for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and glucose levels, were measured.


          Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79%) in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67%) and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%), when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was enhanced (up to 19%) by AqSF-P cosupplementation in both normal and HCL mice. FF supplementation enhanced the excretion of fecal TC (by 75%) in mice fed with HCBD. Fecal TC contents were increased by 14%/9% in the combination therapy with FF and AqSF-P in ND-/HCBD-fed mice. Serum ALT activity was elevated by 45% in HCBD-fed mice. FF caused a significant increase in ALT activity by 198% and 120% in normal and HCL mice, respectively. BY markedly attenuated the ALT activity by 54% in mice fed with ND supplemented with 0.1% FF and by 42% in mice fed with HCBD supplemented with 0.03% FF.


          AqSF-P cosupplementation augmented the hepatic lipid-/glucose-lowering effects of FF. BY ameliorated FF-induced liver injury in normal and HCL mice.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used, per present standards of the CCS. The total cardiovascular disease Framingham Risk Score (FRS), modified for a family history of premature coronary disease, is recommended for risk assessment. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol remains the primary target of therapy. However, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol has been added to apolipoprotein B as an alternate target. There is an increased emphasis on treatment of higher risk patients, including those with chronic kidney disease and high risk hypertension. The primary panel has recommended a judicious use of secondary testing for subjects in whom the need for statin therapy is unclear. Expanded information on health behaviours is presented and is the backbone of risk reduction in all subjects. Finally, a systematic approach to statin intolerance is advocated to maximize appropriate use of lipid-lowering therapy. This document presents the recommendations and principal conclusions of this process. Along with associated Supplementary Material that can be accessed online, this document will be part of a program of knowledge translation. The goal is to increase the appropriate use of evidence-based cardiovascular disease event risk assessment in the management of dyslipidemia as a fundamental means of reducing global risk in the Canadian population. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Regulation of sterol synthesis in eukaryotes.

              Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes and is required for proper membrane permeability, fluidity, organelle identity, and protein function. Cells maintain sterol homeostasis by multiple feedback controls that act through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. The membrane-bound transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is the principal regulator of both sterol synthesis and uptake. In mammalian cells, the ER membrane protein Insig has emerged as a key component of homeostatic regulation by controlling both the activity of SREBP and the sterol-dependent degradation of the biosynthetic enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of sterol synthesis. A comparative analysis of SREBP and HMG-CoA reductase regulation in mammals, yeast, and flies points toward an equilibrium model for how lipid signals regulate the activity of sterol-sensing proteins and their downstream effectors.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                17 February 2015
                : 9
                : 923-935
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
                [3 ]School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Si-Yuan Pan, Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 6 Wangjing Zhonghuan South Road, Chao Yang District, Beijing 100102, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 8473 8626, Fax +86 10 6472 1242, Email siyuan-pan@ 123456163.com
                Zhi-Ling Yu, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, 7 Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China, Tel +852 3411 2465, Fax +852 3411 2461, Email zlyu@ 123456hkbu.edu.hk
                © 2015 Zhu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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